Field technicians and emergency response personnel are often faced with the dangers of flammable, combustible, and chemically unstable materials. Although there are numerous procedures set forth by regulatory agencies like the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for effectively and safely dealing with such environmental hazards, up until now there has been no single resource for training in this area.
Based on the author's twenty-plus years of field experience, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Manual is a comprehensive text that covers the complete curriculum requirements set forth by OSHA and HazWOPER. Highly accessible and broad in focus, the book is equally useful as a technical resource for training, a hands-on reference for field operations, and a textbook for environmental courses in a variety of areas.
Coverage includes:Methods recommended by professional societies and regulatory agencies including the National Fire Protection Association, OSHA, EPA, and NIOSHPractical examples and assignments in each chapter to supplement the text and enhance usefulness to students
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Table of Contents
1. REGULATIONS, AGENCIES, AND RESOURCES.Introduction - History of Employee Health and Safety Regulations. Regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency. Hazardous Waste Numbers. EPA Identification Numbers. Clean Water Act. Clean Air Act. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Toxic Substance Control Act. Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Department of Transportation (DOT). National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). NFPA 704 Labeling. Hazard Communication Standard. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER). Hazwoper Training. Incident Command System (ICS). Resources. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Emergency Response Guidebook. Summary. 2. HAZARD CLASSIFICATION. Chemical Exposure. Explosion and Fire. Oxygen Deficiency. Ionizing Radiation. Biological Hazards. General Safety Hazards. Electrical Hazards. Heat Stress. Cold Exposure. Noise. Poisonous Snakes, Insects, and Plants. Weather. Heavy Equipment. Tools. Definition of Hazardous Materials vs. Hazardous Waste. Classification of Hazardous Materials. Physical Properties of Hazardous Materials. Vapor Density and Specific Gravity. Flammability. Explosive Limits. Flash Point. Flammable Solids. Firefighting and Fire Prevention. Portable Fire Extinguishers. Toxic Products of Combustion. Corrosives. Acids. Alkalis. Reactivity of Some Common Elements. Water-Reactive Materials. Oxidizing Materials. Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE). Flammable and Combustible Liquid. Summary. 3. SITE SAFETY PLAN. The Plan. Emergencies. Incident Characterization. Remedial Actions. Safety Plan Development. Routine Operations. Describe the Known Hazards and Risks. List Key Personnel and Alternates. Designate Levels of Protection to be Worn. Delineate Work Areas. List Control Procedures. Establish Decontamination Procedures. Address Requirements for an Environmental Surveillance Program. Specify Any Routine and/or Special Training Required. Establish Procedures for Weather-Related Problems. On Site Emergencies. Establish Site Emergency Procedures. Address Emergency Medical Care. Implementation of the Site Safety Plan. Typical Safety Plan Outline. Responsibilities. Client. Engineering Firm. Site Contractors. Consulting Firm / Site Safety Officer (SSO). Summary. 4. SITE CHARACTERIZATION. Offsite Characterization. Interview/Records Research. Perimeter Investigation. Protection of Site Entry Workforce. Onsite Survey. Continuing the Survey. Information Documentation. Hazard Assessment. Threshold Limit Values. Permissible Exposure Limit. Recommended Exposure Limit. IDLH Concentrations. Potential Skin Absorption and Irritation. Potential Eye Irritation. Flammable and Explosive Range. Monitoring. 5. SITE CONTROL. Site Map. Site Preparation. Site Preparation Tasks. Site Work Zones. Exclusion or Hot Zone. Contamination Reduction or Warm Zone. Support Zone or Cold Zone. Buddy System. Enforce Decontamination Procedures. Security Measures. Communication Networks. Internal Communications. Safety Meetings. External Communications. Summary. 6. TOXICOLOGY AND MEDICAL MONITORING. Toxicity vs. Hazard. Toxicity Tests. Dose-Response Relationship. Measurement of Response. Dose-Response Terms. Use of Dose-Response Relationship. Limitations of Dose-Response Data. Routes of Exposure. Gender Differences. Age. Synergism, Antagonism, and Potentiation. Genetics. Species Variation. Kinds of Toxicity. Types of Toxic Effects. Toxic Substances and Cancer-Causing Agents. Introduction to Medical Monitoring. Developing a Program. Pre-Employment Screening. Sample Pre-Employment Examination. Additional Medical Testing. Baseline Monitoring. Periodic Medical Examinations. Sample Periodic Medical Examination. Termination Examination. Emergency Treatment. Non-Emergency Treatment. Medical Records. Program Review and Summary. 7. AIR MONITORING. Monitoring Instruments. Direct-Reading Instruments. Laboratory Analysis. Site Monitoring. Monitoring for Dangerous Conditions. General On-Site Monitoring. Perimeter Monitoring. Periodic Monitoring. Personal Monitoring. Variables of Hazardous-Waste Site Exposure. Limitations and Advantages of Monitoring Equipment. Summary. 8. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. Introduction. Developing a Personal Protective Equipment Program. Equipment Use. Program Review and Evaluation. Selection of Protective Clothing. Examples of Protective Clothing. Selection of Chemical Protective Clothing (CPC). Selection of Ensembles. Personal Protective Equipment Use. Training. Work Duration. Inspection. Storage. Heat Stress and Other Physiological Factors. Monitoring. Prevention. Cold Weather Operations. Other Factors. Physical Condition. Level of Acclimatization. Age. Sex. Weight. Maintenance. Summary. 9. DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES. Introduction. General Procedures. Preplanning for Decontamination. Personal Protective Equipment. Types of Decontamination. Physical Removal. Chemical Removal. Equipment Needs. Proper Disposal. Personal Protection. Preliminary Concerns. Level of Protection. Work Function. Location of Contamination. Reasons for Leaving Site. Establishment of Procedures. Decontamination during Medical Emergencies. Physical Injury. Partial and Full Decontamination. Persistent Contamination. Summary. 10. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION. Selection of Respiratory Equipment. Air-Purifying Respirators. Air-Line Respirators (ALRs). Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). In-Use Monitoring. Storage. Inspection,. Cleaning of Respirators. Summary. 11. ENGINEERING CONTROLS. Buddy System. Site Security. Communications Systems. Handling Hazardous-Waste Containers. Planning. Packaged Laboratory Wastes. Bulging, Leaking, Open, Deteriorated, or Buried Drums. Sampling. Characterization. Staging. Bulking. Shipment. Vacuum Trucks. Elevated Tanks. Compressed Gas Cylinders. Ponds and Lagoons. Tanks and Vaults. Confined Spaces. Trenching and Excavation Safety. Summary. 12. SITE EMERGENCIES. Planning. Personnel. Federal Response Organizations. Training. Emergency Recognition and Prevention. Communications. Internal Communications. External Communications. Site Mapping. Safe Distances and Refuges. Site Security and Control. Personal Locator Systems. Evacuation Routes and Procedures. Decontamination. Equipment. Medical Treatment and First Aid. Emergency Response Procedures. Size-Up. Rescue/Response Action. Follow-Up Procedures. Documentation. Emergency Response Plan. Summary. Glossary. Index.