Cat Musculature: A Photographic Atlas

Cat Musculature: A Photographic Atlas

by Gordon Greenblatt

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Overview

This series of brilliant photographs shows the dissection of the cat musculature. It is designed for use in conjunction with the third edition of Hyman's Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, edited by Marvalee Wake, although it can be used with other textbooks. Every possible step has been taken to make the photographs easy to interpret and to follow. Reference indications to the Wake texts are included, and also concise data on the origin, insertion, and action of each muscle. The scale is such that in most cases no more than five muscles are shown per photograph, thus simplifying the task of visualizing the individual muscles. An invaluable aid for every student of cat anatomy.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780226112398
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Publication date: 08/10/2012
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 32
File size: 4 MB

Read an Excerpt

Cat Musculature

A Photographic Atlas


By Gordon M. Greenblatt

The University of Chicago Press

Copyright © 1980 The University of Chicago
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-226-11239-8



CHAPTER 1

Guide to CAT MUSCULATURE: A PHOTOGRAPHIC ATLAS

This guide coincides with the organization of the material in Hyman's Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, third edition, edited by Marvalee Wake. Information on the origins, insertions, and actions of the muscles are also from Wake. Numbers following the names of individual muscles refer to plates in this atlas.


Pectoral Girdle and Forelimb Muscles

Superficial Chest Muscles (pages 355 and 356 in Wake)

Pectoantibrachialis 2, 15

Origin: Manubrium

Insertion: Fascia of forearm

Action: Draws arm towards chest


Pectoralis major 2, 15

Origin: Sternum and median ventral raphe

Insertion: Pectoral ridge on ventral side of humerus

Action: Draws arm towards chest


Pectoralis minor 2, 15

Origin: Sternum

Insertion: Ventral side of humerus, distal to pectoralis major

Action: Drawn arm toward chest


Xiphihumeralis 2, 15

Origin: Xiphoid process

Insertion: Ventral side of humerus with pectoralis minor

Action: Draws arm towards chest


Shoulder Muscles (pages 356 to 359 in Wake)

Latissimus dorsi 3

Origin: Neural spines of last thoracic and lumbar vertebrae and lumbodorsal fascia

Insertion: Medial surface of humerus

Action: Pulls forelimb dorsally and caudally, by retracting humerus


Trapezius muscles

Spinotrapezius 3

Origin: Spines of thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: Fascia of scapula

Action: Draws scapula dorsad and caudad Acromiotrapezius 3

Origin: Spines of cervical and first thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: Metacromion process, spine of scapula, and fascia of spinotrapezius

Action: Draws scapula dorsad and holds scapulae together


Clavotrapezius 3

Origin: Superior nuchal line and median dorsal line of neck

Insertion: Clavicle

Action: Draws clavicle dorsad and craniad


Levator scapulae ventralis 3

Origin: Transverse process of atlas and occipital bone

Insertion: Metacromion process of scapula and neighboring fascia

Action: Draws scapula craniad


Rhomboideus 4

Origin: Neural spines of vertebrae and ligaments

Insertion: Vertebral border of scapula

Action: Draws scapula dorsad and medial


Rhomboideus capitis 4

Origin: Superior nuchal line

Insertion: Scapula

Action: Draws scapula craniad or raises head Deltoids


Clavodeltoid (clavobrachialis) 3

Origin: Clavicle and fibers of clavotrapezius

Insertion: Ulna

Action: Flexor of forearm or protracts arm


Acromiodeltoid 3

Origin: Acromion process

Insertion: Spinodeltoid and brachial muscles and humeral deltoid ridge

Action: Retracts and abducts humerus


Spinodeltoid 3

Origin: Scapular spine

Insertion: Deltoid ridge of humerus

Action: Retracts and abducts humerus


Supraspinatus 4

Origin: Surface of supraspinous fossa

Insertion: Greater tuberosity of humerus

Action: Extends humerus


Infraspinatus 4

Origin: Infraspinous fossa of scapula

Insertion: Greater tuberosity of humerus

Action: Rotates humerus outward


Teres major 5

Origin: Glenoid border of scapula and neighboring fascia

Insertion: Medial surface of humerus with latissimus dorsi

Action: Rotates and retracts humerus


Teres minor 5

Origin: Glenoid border of scapula

Insertion: Greater tuberoisty of humerus

Action: Rotates humerus with infraspinatus


Subscapularis 6

Origin: Subscapular fossa

Insertion: Lesser tuberosity of humerus

Action: Pulls humerus medially


Serratus ventralis 6

Origin: First nine or ten ribs and transverse processes of last five cervical vertebrae

Insertion: Scapula near vertebral border

Action: Anterior part draws scapula craniad, main part draws scapula ventrad


Upper Arm Muscles (pages 359 to 360 in Wake)

Triceps brachii long head 5

Origin: Scapula, glenoid border

Insertion: Olecranon process

Action: With lateral and medial heads, extensor of forearm


Triceps brachii lateral head 5

Origin: Greater tuberosity and deltoid ridge of humerus

Insertion: Olecranon process

Action: With long and medial heads, extensor of forearm


Triceps brachii medial head 5

Origin: Dorsal surface of humerus

Insertion: Olecranon process

Action: With long and lateral heads, extensor of forearm


Triceps brachii fourth head (anconeus) 5

Origin: Distal end of humerus

Insertion: Lateral surface of ulna

Action: Strengthens elbow joint


Epitrochlearis 7

Origin: Latissimus dorsi

Insertion: Olecranon process

Action: Extensor of forearm and rotator of ulna


Biceps brachii 7

Origin: Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula

Insertion: Bicipital tuberosity of radius

Action: Flexes and supinates forearm


Brachialis 5

Origin: Lateral surface of humerus

Insertion: Ulna

Action: With the biceps


Forearm Muscles (pages 360 and 361 in Wake)

Extensor carpi ulnaris 8

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus and semilunar notch of ulna

Insertion: Proximal end of fifth metacarpal

Action: Extends fifth digit and ulnar side of wrist


Extensor digitorum lateralis 8

Origin:Lateral surface of humerus above lateral epicondyle

Insertion: Tendons to three or four digits

Action: Extends digits


Extensor digitorum communis 8

Origin: Lateral surface of humerus above lateral epicondyle

Insertion: Tendons to three or four digits

Action: Extends digits


Brachioradialis (supinator longus) 8

Origin: Middle of humerus

Insertion: Lower end of radius and ligaments

Action: Rotates hand to supine position


Extensor carpi radialis 8, 9

Origin: Humerus

Insertion: Second and third metacarpals

Action: Extends hand


Pronator teres 9

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Radius

Action: Rotates radius to prone position


Flexor carpi radialis 9

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Second and third metacarpals

Action: Flexes hand


Palmaris longus 9

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Tendons to pads of palm and digits

Action: Flexor of digits


Flexor digitorum profundus 10

Origin: Ulna and humerus

Insertion: Basal phalanges

Action: Flexor of digits


Flexor carpi ulnaris 9

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus and olecranon process

Insertion: Pisiform bone

Action: Flexes ulnar side of wrist


Trunk Muscles

Hypaxial Muscles (pages 361 and 362 in Wake)

External oblique 11

Origin: Lumbodorsal fascia and posterior ribs

Insertion: Aponeurosis to linea alba

Action: Constrictor of abdomen


Internal oblique 11

Origin: Second sheet of lumbodorsal fascia and border of pelvic girdle

Insertion: Aponeurosis to linea alba

Action: Compressor of abdomen


Transverse 11

Origin: Second sheet of lumbodorsal fascia and border of pelvic girdle

Insertion: Aponeurosis to linea alba

Action: Compressor of abdomen


Rectus abdominis 11

Origin: Anterior end of pubic symphysis

Insertion: Sternum and costal cartilages

Action: Retracts ribs and sternum and compresses abdomen


Serratus dorsalis 4

Origin: Aponeurosis to medial dorsal line

Insertion: Ribs near angles

Action: Draws ribs forward


Scalenes 6

Origin: Ribs

Insertion: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

Action: Draw ribs forward and bend neck


Epaxial muscles (pages 362 and 363 in Wake)

Sacrospinalis 12

Semispinalis dorsi

Action: Dorsiflex the back


Longissimus

Action: Dorsiflex the back


Iliocostalis

Action: Draws ribs together


Splenius 12

Origin: Middorsal line and fascia

Insertion: Superior nuchal line

Action: Raises or turns head


Longissimus capitis 12

Origin: Last four cervical vertebrae

Insertion: Mastoid process

Action: Turns head


Head and Neck Muscles (pages 363 to 366 in Wake)

Sternomastoid 13, 15

Origin: Median raphe and manubrium of sternum

Insertion: Mastoid process and lamboidal ridge

Action: Singly turns head, together depress head on neck


Sternohyoid 13, 15

Origin: First costal cartilage

Insertion: Hyoid bone

Action: Draws hyoid posteriorly


Cleidomastoid 13, 15

Origin: Clavicle

Insertion: Mastoid process (origin and insertion are interchangeable)

Action: Singly pulls clavicle craniad or turns head, together lower head on neck


Masseter 13, 15

Origin: Zygomatic arch

Insertion: Posterior half of lateral mandibular surface

Action: Elevator of jaw


Temporalis 14

Origin: Superior nuchal line to zygomatic arch

Insertion: Coronoid process of mandible

Action: Elevator of jaw with masseter


Digastric 13, 15

Origin: Jugular and mastoid process of skull

Insertion: Mandible

Action: Depresses lower jaw


Mylohyoid 13, 15

Origin: Mandible

Insertion: Median raphe

Action: Raises floor of mouth and brings hyoid bone forward


Geniohyoid 13, 15

Origin: Mandible near symphysis

Insertion: Body of hyoid bone

Action: Draws hyoid forward


Sternothyroid 13, 15

Origin: Sternum

Insertion: Thyroid cartilage

Action: Pulls larynx posteriorly


Thyrohyoid 13, 15

Origin: Posterior horn of hyoid

Insertion: The same

Action: Raises the larynx


Pelvic Girdle and Hind Limb Muscles

Hip and Thigh Muscles (pages 366 to 370 in Wake)

Tensor fascie latae 16

Origin: Ilium and fascia

Insertion: Fascia lata

Action: Tightens fascia lata


Biceps fermoris 16

Origin: Tuberosity of ischium

Insertion: Patella, tibia, and shank fascia

Action: Abductor of thigh and flexor of shank


Caudofemoralis 16

Origin: Transverse processes of second and third caudal vertebrae

Insertion: Patella

Action: Abductor of thigh, extensor of shank


Gluteus maximus 16

Origin: Fascia and transverse processes of last sacral and first caudal vertebrae

Insertion: Fascia lata and greater trochanter

Action: Abductor of thigh


Gluteus medius 16

Origin: Fascia, crest, and lateral surface of ilium, and transverse processes of last sacral and first caudal vertebrae

Insertion: Greater trochanter

Action: Abductor of thigh


Sartorius 17

Origin: Crest and ventral border of ilium

Insertion: Proximal end of tibia, patella, and fascia

Action: Adductor and rotator of thigh and extensor of shank


Vastus lateralis 19

Origin: Greater trochanter and surface of femur

Insertion: Patella

Action: Extensor of shank


Rectus femoris 18

Origin: Ilium near acetabulum

Insertion: Patella

Action: Extensor of shank


Vastus medialis 18

Origin: Femur

Insertion: Patella

Action: Extensor of shank


Vastus intermedius 20

Origin: Surface of femur

Insertion: Patella

Action: Extensor of shank


Gracilis 17

Origin: Ischial and pubic symphysis

Insertion: Aponeurosis to tibia

Action: Adductor of leg


Adductor longus 18

Origin: Pubis

Insertion: Femur

Action: Adductor of leg


Adductor femoris 18

Origin: Pubis

Insertion: Femur

Action: Adductor of leg


Semimembranosus 18

Origin: Ischium

Insertion: Medial epicondyle of femur and proximal end of tibia

Action: Extensor of thigh


Semitendinosus 19

Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Tibia

Action: Flexor of shank


Tenuissimus 19

Origin: Transverse processes of second caudal vertebrae

Insertion: On same fascia as insertion of biceps

Action: With biceps


Muscles of the Shank (pages 370 and 371 in Wake)

Tibialis anterior 21

Origin: Proximal parts of tibia and fibula

Insertion: First metatarsal

Action: Flexor of foot


Extensor digitorum longus 22

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of femur

Insertion: Digits

Action: Extensor of digits and dorsiflexion of foot


Peroneus 22

Origin: Fibula

Insertion: Metatarsals and digits

Action: Extensor of foot


Gastrocnemius 21, 22

Origin: Surface fascia, femur, tendon, and fascia of plantaris

Insertion: Calcaneus

Action: Extensor of foot


Soleus 22

Origin: Fibula

Insertion: Calcaneus

Action: Extensor of foot


Plantaris 23

Origin: Patella and femur

Insertion: Ventral surface of calcaneus and digits

Action: Flexor of digits and extensor of ankle


Flexor digitorum longus 21

Origin: Tibia, fibula, and fascia

Insertion: Digits

Action: Flexor of digits


Tibialis posterior 24

Origin: Fibula, tibia, and fascia

Insertion: Scaphoid and medial cuneiform of ankle

Action: Extensor of foot


(Continues...)

Excerpted from Cat Musculature by Gordon M. Greenblatt. Copyright © 1980 The University of Chicago. Excerpted by permission of The University of Chicago Press.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents

This series of brilliant photographs shows the dissection of the cat musculature. It is designed for use in conjunction with the third edition of Hyman's Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, edited by Marvalee Wake, although it can be used with other textbooks. Every possible step has been taken to make the photographs easy to interpret and to follow. Reference indications to the Wake texts are included, and also concise data on the origin, insertion, and action of each muscle. The scale is such that in most cases no more than five muscles are shown per photograph, thus simplifying the task of visualizing the individual muscles. An invaluable aid for every student of cat anatomy.

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