Robot Programming: A Practical Guide to Behavior-Based Robotics / Edition 1

Robot Programming: A Practical Guide to Behavior-Based Robotics / Edition 1

by Joe Jones
ISBN-10:
0071427783
ISBN-13:
2900071427783
Pub. Date:
12/12/2003
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

Paperback

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Overview

Robot Programming: A Practical Guide to Behavior-Based Robotics / Edition 1

Using an intuitive method, Robot Programming deconstructs robot control into simple and distinct behaviors that are easy to program and debug for inexpensive microcontrollers with little memory. Once you've mastered programming your online 'bot, you can easily adapt your programs for use in physical robots. Though Robot Programming smoothes the path to acquiring skills in this arcane art, it does not reduce it to simplistics. With this resource, you can open the door to all the complexity, sophistication, versatility, and robustness that it is possible for robot behavior to exhibit.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900071427783
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Publication date: 12/12/2003
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 293
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Joe Jones (Acton, MA) is a veteran roboticist, currently employed by iRobot. He is the co-author of Mobile Robots: Inspiration to Implementation, as well as numerous articles in the field of robotics. He is one of the inventors of the Roomba(R) Robotic FloorVac, the first widely adopted consumer robot.


Daniel Roth (Cambridge, MA) is a master's degree candidate in computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, specializing in autonomous robot navigation.

Table of Contents

Prefacexi
Acknowledgmentsxvii
Introductionxix
1Autonomous Mobile Robots1
Example: Collection Task1
Robot Defined6
Sensing8
Actuation10
Intelligence11
Mobile and Immobile Robots11
Responding to the Challenge15
Robot's World View16
Summary20
Exercises21
2Control Systems25
Open and Closed Loop Control25
Position Control Example30
Control System Catastrophe31
Control System Stability33
Saturation, Backlash, and Dead Zones36
Open Loop Controllers with Parameters and State39
Bang-Bang Controllers40
Hysteresis42
Summary44
Exercises45
3Behaviors49
Triggers and Control Systems49
Servo and Ballistic Behaviors51
Implementing Servo Behaviors52
Finite State Analysis57
FSM Example: Escape63
FSM Implementation67
Overloading Behaviors70
Summary70
Exercises71
4Arbitration75
Fixed Priority Arbitration75
When to Arbitrate79
Graceful Degradation83
The Path Not Taken87
Sensor Qualification89
Other Arbitration Schemes92
Variable Priority92
Subsumption Architecture93
Motor Schema97
Least Commitment Arbitration100
Summary102
Exercises103
5Programming107
Homing Based on Differential Detectors107
Homing Based on Absolute Position112
Avoidance with Differential Detectors117
Anti-Canyoning120
Wall-Following with Contact Sensors124
Wall-Following with Ranging Sensors126
Wall-Following with Proximity Sensors127
Confinement and Cliff Behaviors128
Thrashing130
Escape133
Area Coverage134
Deterministic Coverage134
Random Coverage135
Generalized Differential Response139
Avoidance and Homing Using Vectors143
Debugging145
Summary146
Exercises147
6Decomposition151
SodaBot152
Stating the Problem152
Accomplishing the Task Simply156
Visit Likely Spots157
Identify Soda Cans157
Abandoned versus Active Sodas158
Can Pickup160
Navigation161
Identify, Deposit, and Recharge162
Avoid Hazards163
Mechanical Platform164
Which Questions?164
Which Sensors?165
Building Behaviors167
SodaBot Behaviors167
Robot Recap171
Principles172
First Do No Harm172
Tilt the Playing Field172
Prefer Robust Chaos to Brittle Determinism172
Summary173
Exercises174
7Physical Interfaces177
Collision Sensors179
Bumpers180
Stall Sensors183
Stasis Sensing185
Avoidance Sensors185
Infrared Proximity Sensors186
Infrared Range Sensors188
Sonar Sensors189
Range-Sensor Considerations190
Homing Sensors192
Photocells, Phototransistors, and Photodiodes192
Coded Beacons194
Pyroelectric Sensors196
Color Blob Sensors196
Magnetic Sensors197
Dead Reckoning and Navigation Sensors197
Shaft Encoders197
Inertial Sensors199
Compasses199
GPS201
Summary201
Exercises202
8Implementation203
RoCK Specifications: The Goal of a New Machine203
Programming Specifications208
RoCK's Behaviors211
Dance211
IR_follow and VL_follow212
Boston212
Cruise212
Escape212
Joystick213
Wire213
Beeper Control213
The Code214
Scheduler214
Behavior Format216
Arbiter222
Summary226
Exercises226
9Future Robots229
Reply Hazy--Ask Again Later230
Which Path?232
Future Actuation233
Power233
Motors234
Manipulation235
Locomotion237
Future Intelligence237
Robot Control238
Learning238
Future Sensing239
Vision240
Acoustic Sensing240
Other Sensors241
Exercise242
AMathematics of Differential Drive243
Pose243
Dead Reckoning245
Differential Drive249
London Fog252
Limits of Dead Reckoning253
Summary254
Exercises256
BBSim259
BSim Aspects259
The Simulator and Time259
The World260
Fantasy Mode and Noise261
Latency261
A Simple Robot261
Behaviors and Arbitration262
Cruise263
Escape263
Avoid263
Wall Follow264
Home264
Anti-Moth265
Dark-Push265
London265
Gizmo265
Remote266
Tasks266
Collection Task266
Gizmo Task266
London Task267
Simulations267
Collection Simulation267
London Simulation267
Gizmo Simulation267
User Interface268
World Editor268
The Robot Programmer268
CFrequently Used Functions271
Clip271
Leaky Integrator272
Running Average274
Angle Computations275
DPseudocode279
EBibliography283
Index285

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