This publication identifies and provides design guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures that have been implemented by various State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States. Countermeasure experience, selection, and design guidance are consolidated from other FHWA publications in this document to support a comprehensive analysis of scour and stream instability problems and provide a range of solutions to those problems. Selected innovative countermeasure concepts and guidance derived from practice outside the United States are introduced. Management strategies and guidance for developing a Plan of Action for scour critical bridges are outlined, and guidance is provided for scour monitoring using portable and fixed instrumentation. The results of recently completed National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) projects are incorporated in the design guidance, including: countermeasures to protect bridge piers and abutments from scour; riprap design criteria, specifications, and quality control; and environmentally sensitive channel and bank protection measures. This additional material required expanding HEC-23 to two volumes. Volume 1 now contains a complete chapter on riprap design, specifications, and quality control as well as an expanded chapter on biotechnical countermeasures. The guidance on scour monitoring instrumentation has been updated and now includes additional installation case studies. Volume 2 contains 19 detailed design guidelines grouped into six categories, including countermeasures for: (1) stream instability (2) streambank and roadway embankment protection, (3) bridge pier protection, (4) abutment protection, (5) filter design, and (6) special applications.