Bridging the Gap: College Reading / Edition 8

Bridging the Gap: College Reading / Edition 8

by Deborah Deutsch Smith
ISBN-10:
0321472071
ISBN-13:
9780321472076
Pub. Date:
05/28/2006
Publisher:
Longman
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Overview

Bridging the Gap: College Reading / Edition 8

Written for the mid to high-level developmental reading course, Bridging the Gap, by Brenda Smith continues to be the #1 textbook choice of developmental reading educators. Bridging the Gap was the first book to focus on how to read college textbooks. Over the course of several editions, this theme has been broadened by linking textbook readings to recent news in the popular press and adding material on critical thinking and the Internet. A hallmark of the text, the end-of-chapter readings represent three different reading levels (9th-10th, 10th-12th, 12th+) to permit individualization of assignments to meet varying student needs. A variety of academic disciplines are represented throughout, including psychology, history, biology, business, allied health, English literature, and more.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780321472076
Publisher: Longman
Publication date: 05/28/2006
Pages: 624
Product dimensions: 8.51(w) x 10.70(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents



1. Active Academic Reading

What Is Active Academic Reading?

What Can We Learn From Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience?

BRAIN BOOSTER
BRAIN BOOSTER: Are You Paying Attention?

Help Your Brain Absorb New Information

Poor Concentration: Causes and Cures


External Distractions
Internal Distractions

BRAIN BOOSTER: Are You Curious?
READER’S TIP: Improving Concentration
READER’S TIP: Managing Electronic Communication

Is Reading Rate Important?


Varying Rate and Technique to Fit Purpose
Rate Variations and Prior Knowledge
READER’S TIP: Efficient Reading: Adjusting Rate and Technique to Material and Purpose

What Is Your Baseline Reading Rate?
BRAIN BOOSTER: Music to Our Ears and to Our Brains

Habits for Faster Reading

Strategies for Reading Comprehension Tests


Plan for Success
Before Taking a Test
BRAIN BOOSTER: Balance Memorization and Application in Test Preparation

During the Test
After the Test
BRAIN BOOSTER: Turn Mistakes Into Successes

Recognize the Major Types of Comprehension Questions
READER’S TIP: Key Words in Essay Questions

Locus of Control


SUMMARY POINTS
SELECTION 1 PSYCHOLOGY

“Are you Stalling? Win the Battle Against Procrastination!” from Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, and Denise G. Boyd
CONCEPT PREP FOR PSYCHOLOGY

SELECTION 2 HISTORY


“Home Front Workers, Rosie the Riveter, and Victory Girls” from Jacqueline Jones, et al.
CONCEPT PREP FOR HISTORY

SELECTION 3 SCIENCE


“Is there Enough Earth for Everyone?” from Teresa Audesirk, Gerald Audesirk, and Bruce E. Byers
VOCABULARY BOOSTER: OVER, UNDER, AROUND, AND THROUGH


2. Strategic Reading and Study

What Is Strategic Reading?


Four Types of Readers
The Stages of Reading

Stage 1: Strategies for Previewing


Signposts for Previewing
READER’S TIP: Ask Questions While Previewing

Preview to Activate Schemata
BRAIN BOOSTER: Schemata and Your Brain

Stage 2: Strategies for Integrating Knowledge While Reading

Integrating Ideas: How Do Good Readers Think?
Metacognition

READER’S TIP: Using Thinking Strategies While Reading
READER’S TIP: Developing Metacognition for Reading

Stage 3: Strategies for Recalling


Recalling Through Writing
The Three Steps of Recalling

READER’S TIP: Thinking After Reading
BRAIN BOOSTER: Use It to Remember It!
SUMMARY POINTS
SELECTION 1 HISTORY
“Madam C. J. Walker: Business Savvy to Generous Philanthropy” from America.gov Archive

SELECTION 2 HEALTH
“High-Risk Drinking and College Students” from Rebecca J. Donatelle and Patricia Ketchum

SELECTION 3 BUSINESS

“Toms Shoes: ‘Be the Change You Want to See in the World’” from Gary Armstrong and Philip Kotler
CONCEPT PREP FOR BUSINESS
VOCABULARY BOOSTER: THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY



3. Organizing Textbook Information for Study

Get Organized for College Study


Building Knowledge Networks
The Study Process
Organizing Textbook Information
BRAIN BOOSTER: Exercise to Boost Brain Power

Annotating

Why Annotate?
READER’S TIP: How to Annotate

When to Annotate

Note Taking


When and How to Take Notes
The Cornell Method
READER’S TIP: How to Take Notes: The Cornell Method

Outlining

READER’S TIP: Guidelines for Successful Outlining
BRAIN BOOSTER: Sleep and Problem Solving

Mapping


READER’S TIP: How to Map
SUMMARY POINTS
SELECTION 1 BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS

“Watch Your Language!” from Gary Armstrong and Philip Kotler
CONCEPT PREP FOR COMMUNICATIONS AND LANGUAGE

SELECTION 2 HEALTH
“Managing Stress in College” from Rebecca J. Donatelle
CONCEPT PREP FOR HEALTH

SELECTION 3 CRIMINAL JUSTICE

“Police DNA Collection Sparks Questions” from the Associated Press
VOCABULARY BOOSTER: WHO’S WHO IN MEDICINE?

4. Vocabulary


Remembering New Words and Unlocking Meaning

Associate Words in Phrases
Associate Words with Rhymes or Sounds
BRAIN BOOSTER: Use Your Senses to Make More Sense!

Associate Words With Images
Seek Reinforcement
Create Concept Cards
Use Strategies to Unlock Meaning While Reading

Using Context Clues


Definition or Synonym
Elaborating Details
Examples
Comparison
Contrast
Antonyms
Limitations of Context Clues
Multiple Meanings of a Word

Understanding the Structure of Words
Using Word Reference Aids


Using a Dictionary
Using a Glossary
Using a Thesaurus
BRAIN BOOSTER: Meaning Matters!

Deepening Word Meaning


Exploring Word Origins
Solving Analogies
READER’S TIP: Categories of Analogy Relationships

Studying Easily Confused Words

SUMMARY POINTS
SELECTION 1 HEALTH

“Technology and Health” from Rebecca J. Donatelle
VOCABULARY BOOSTER: WHAT’S IN, WHAT’S OUT?
WHAT’S HOT, WHAT’S NOT?


5. Main Idea and Supporting Details
Topics, Main Ideas, and Supporting Details


What Is a Topic?
What Is a Main Idea?
What Are Supporting Details?
Distinguishing Topics, Main Ideas, and Details: A Closer Look

Strategies for Finding the Main Idea

Prior Knowledge and Constructing the Main Idea
Identifying Main Ideas Among Sentences
READER’S TIP: Using Three Questions to Find the Main Idea

Questioning for the Main Idea

Stated Main Ideas


The Topic Sentence
How Common Are Stated Main Ideas?
Where Are Stated Main Ideas Located?

What Are Major and Minor Details?

READER’S TIP: Signals for Significance

Unstated Main Ideas

Unstated Main Ideas in Sentences
Unstated Main Ideas in Paragraphs

Determining the Main Idea of Longer Selections

READER’S TIP: Getting the Main Idea of Longer Selections
BRAIN BOOSTER: Brains Need the Right Amount of Sleep

Summary Writing: A Main Idea Skill

Why Summarize?

READER’S TIP: How to Summarize
BRAIN BOOSTER: Chronic Stress and the Brain
SUMMARY POINTS
SELECTION 1 PSYCHOLOGY
“The Obedience Study” from Carole Wade, Carol Tavris, and Maryanne Garry

CONCEPT PREP FOR PSYCHOLOGY
SELECTION 2 SHORT STORY
“On the Sidewalk, Bleeding” from Evan Hunter

CONCEPT PREP FOR LITERATURE
SELECTION 3 CRIMINAL JUSTICE
“Fighting Violent Gang Crime with Math” from Stuart Wolpert

VOCABULARY BOOSTER: THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS

6. Patterns of Organization
Textbook Organization: The Big Picture
What Do Transitional Words Do?

Words That Signal Addition
Words That Signal Examples or Illustrations
Words That Signal Time or Sequence
Words That Signal Comparison
Words That Signal Contrast
READER’S TIP: Transitions and Their Functions
Words That Signal Cause and Effect

Patterns of Organization in Textbooks
BRAIN BOOSTER: Brains Like Patterns


Simple Listing
Definition
Description
Time Order, Sequence, or Narration
Comparison
Contrast
Comparison and Contrast
Cause and Effect
Classification
Summary
Location or Spatial Order
Generalization and Example
READER’S TIP: Patterns of Organization and Signal Words

Clues to the Organizational Pattern

BRAIN BOOSTER: Watering the Brain

Mixed Organizational Patterns


SUMMARY POINTS
SELECTION 1 COMMUNICATIONS
“Managing Conflict” from Joseph A. DeVito

SELECTION 2 HISTORY
“Barbara Johns Leads a Student Strike” from Clayborne Carson, et al.

CONCEPT PREP FOR ART HISTORY
SELECTION 3 BUSINESS
“Why is Papa John’s Rolling in the Dough?” from Courtland L. Bovée, John V. Thrill, and Barbara E. Schatzman
VOCABULARY BOOSTER: CAN I GET THAT IN WRITING?

7. Inference
What Is an Inference?
What Is Required to Make a Reasonable Inference?


Implied Meaning in Humor
BRAIN BOOSTER: The Brain’s Pleasure Center and Learning

Connotative Language
Euphemisms and Politically Correct Language
Figurative Language

Idioms
Similes
Metaphors
Hyperbole
Personification
Verbal Irony
Figurative Language in Poetry

Clues to Making Logical Inferences


Inferences Based on Facts
Inferences Based on the Voice of a Speaker or Narrator
Inferences Based on Action and Description
Inferences Based on Prior Knowledge
BRAIN BOOSTER: Boost Brain Power Through

Collaboration
Expanding Prior Knowledge
READER’S TIP: Making Inferences

Drawing Conclusions


SUMMARY POINTS
SELECTION 1 SHORT STORY
“A Dip in the Poole” from Bill Pronzini
CONCEPT PREP FOR PHILOSOPHY AND LITERATURE

SELECTION 2 PHILOSOPHY
“Coyote” from Robert S. Ellwood

SELECTION 3 PERSONAL NARRATIVE

“Fear the College Years” from John Corcoran
CONCEPT PREP FOR POLITICAL SCIENCE
VOCABULARY BOOSTER: SAY, WHAT?

8. Point of View
What Is the Author’s Point of View?


Textbooks and the Author’s Point of View
What Is Bias?
READER’S TIP: Questions to Uncover Bias

The Importance of the Reader’s Point of View
BRAIN BOOSTER: Male and Female Brains and Their Points of View

What Are Facts and Opinions?
What Is the Author’s Purpose?
What Is the Author’s Tone?


READER’S TIP: Recognizing an Author’s Tone
Using Tone and Other Clues to Determine the Point of View in Editorial Cartoons

SUMMARY POINTS
SELECTION 1 PHILOSOPHY
“Decision” from Gary R. Kirby and Jeffery R. Goodpaster

SELECTION 2 SCIENCE
“Earth’s Changing Climate” from Teresa Audesirk, Gerald Audesirk, and Bruce E. Byers

SELECTION 3 PSYCHOLOGY

“Mental Disorder and Personal Responsibility” from Carole Wade, Carol Tavris, and Maryanne Garry
VOCABULARY BOOSTER: LIGHTS, CAMERA, ACTION!

9. Graphic Illustrations
What Graphics Do

READER’S TIP: How to Read Graphic Illustrations

Types of Graphic Illustrations

Diagrams
Tables
Maps
Pie Graphs
Bar Graphs
Cumulative Bar Graphs
Line Graphs
Flowcharts



SUMMARY POINTS
SELECTION 1 PERSONAL NARRATIVE
“Little Income, Big Debt: Managing Money in College” from Trent Hamm

SELECTION 2 SCIENCE
“The Risks and Benefits of Weight Loss Plans” from Jane B. Reece et al.

SELECTION 3 SOCIOLOGY

“People, Technology, and the Environment” from John J. Macionis
VOCABULARY BOOSTER: PLAY IT AGAIN, SAM

10. Critical Thinking
What Is Thinking?


What Is Analytical Thinking?
What Is Critical Thinking?
Critical Thinking Skills and College Goals
READER’S TIP: Four Habits of Effective Critical Thinkers

Barriers to Critical Thinking

Recognizing an Argument
Steps in Analyzing and Evaluating an Argument


Step 1: Identify the Position on the Issue
Step 2: Identify the Support in the Argument
READER’S TIP: Types of Support for Arguments

Step 3: Evaluate the Support
Step 4: Evaluate the Argument

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Applying the Four Steps of Critical Thinking

Explanation of the Four Steps

Creative and Critical Thinking


BRAIN BOOSTER: The Creative Brain
SUMMARY POINTS

Themed Readings
Technology, Crime, and Ethics



SELECTION 1 CRIMINAL JUSTICE
“High Technology and Criminal Opportunity” from Frank J. Schmalleger

SELECTION 2 CRIMINAL JUSTICE
“Fighting Crime with Technology” from Frank J. Schmalleger

SELECTION 3 ESSAY
“The Writer and the Troll” from Lindy West

VOCABULARY BOOSTER: FOREIGN TERMS

Glossary
Credits
Index
Progress Chart for Reading Selections

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