The first ever guide to the manifold uses and reinterpretations of the classical tradition in Mussolini’s Italy and Hitler’s Germany, Brill’s Companion to the Classics, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany explores how political propaganda manipulated and reinvented the legacy of ancient Greece and Rome in order to create consensus and historical legitimation for the Fascist and National Socialist dictatorships. The memory of the past is a powerful tool to justify policy and create consensus, and, under the Fascist and Nazi regimes, the legacy of classical antiquity was often evoked to promote thorough transformations of Italian and German culture, society, and even landscape. At the same time, the classical past was constantly recreated to fit the ideology of each regime.
About the Author
Helen Roche, Ph.D. (2012), University of Cambridge, is an Affiliated Lecturer in History at Cambridge University. She has published extensively on the classical tradition in Germany, and on Nazism. Her first monograph, Sparta’s German Children (2013), charted Spartan influences on German 19th-20th-century elite education.Kyriakos Demetriou, Ph.D. (1993), University College London, is Professor of Intellectual History at the University of Cyprus. He is editor of Polis, the Journal for Ancient Greek Political Thought. He is the author and editor of several articles and books on classical reception and the history of political thought. Contributors are: Stefan Altekamp, Joshua Arthurs, James J. Fortuna, Alan Kim, Flavia Marcello, Jan Nelis, Dino Piovan, Arthur J. Pomeroy, James I. Porter, Stefan Rebenich, Helen Roche, Iain Boyd Whyte, Felix Wiedemann, and Daniel Wildmann.
Table of Contents
List of IllustrationsNotes on ContributorsIntroduction1 “Distant Models”? Italian Fascism, National Socialism and the Lure of the Classics Helen RochePeople2 The Aryans: Ideology and Historiographical Narrative Types in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries Felix Wiedemann3 Desired Bodies: Leni Riefenstahl’s Olympia, Aryan Masculinity and the Classical Body Daniel Wildmann4 Ancient Historians and Fascism: How to React Intellectually to Totalitarianism (or Not) Dino Piovan5 Philology in Exile: Adorno, Auerbach, and Klemperer James I. PorterIdeas6 Fascist Modernity, Religion, and the Myth of Rome Jan Nelis7 Bathing in the Spirit of Eternal Rome: The Mostra Augustea della Romanità Joshua Arthurs8 “May a Ray from Hellas Shine upon Us”: Plato in the George-Circle Stefan Rebenich9 An Antique Echo: Plato and the Nazis Alan Kim10 Classics and Education in the Third Reich: Die Alten Sprachen and the Nazification of Latin- and Greek-Teaching in Secondary Schools Helen Roche11 Classical Antiquity, Cinema and Propaganda Arthur J. PomeroyPlaces12 Classical Archaeology in Nazi Germany Stefan Altekamp13 Building the Image of Power: Images of Romanità in the Civic Architecture of Fascist Italy Flavia Marcello14 Forma urbis Mussolinii: Vision and Rhetoric in the Designs for Fascist Rome Flavia Marcello15 National Socialism, Classicism, and Architecture Iain Boyd Whyte16 Neoclassical Form and the Construction of Power in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany James J. FortunaGeneral Index