ISBN-10:
0133767167
ISBN-13:
9780133767162
Pub. Date:
08/28/1997
Publisher:
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Business Enviroment: Challenges and Changes / Edition 1

Business Enviroment: Challenges and Changes / Edition 1

by Ian A. Brookes, Jamie Weatherston

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780133767162
Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date: 08/28/1997
Pages: 440
Product dimensions: 6.92(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.92(d)

Table of Contents

PART I THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT 1(338)
1 The business environment
3(30)
Learning outcomes 3(1)
1.1 Environmental forces
3(14)
Introduction
3(1)
The business environment: a definition
4(1)
A classification of environmental forces
5(4)
Environmental stakeholders
9(2)
Geo-political scales
11(2)
The organization-environment relationship
13(1)
A model of the business environment
14(2)
Dynamism and complexity
16(1)
1.2 The organization
17(4)
Types of organization
17(2)
Perceptual filters
19(2)
1.3 Environmental forecasting
21(5)
Forecasting in a dynamic and complex environment
21(1)
Approach to forecasting
22(1)
Forecasting techniques
23(1)
Impact analysis
24(2)
1.4 Environmental analysis and strategic proces
26(5)
Strategy and structure: environmental influence
26(2)
Strategic planning
28(3)
Conclusion
31(1)
Summary of main points
31(1)
References
32(1)
2 The competitive environment
33(42)
Learning outcomes 33(1)
2.1 Introduction
33(1)
2.2 The traditional economic view
34(11)
The command economy
34(1)
The market economy and the price mechanism
35(2)
The nature of the product or service
37(1)
Number of firms and concentration
37(3)
Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)
40(1)
Market entry conditions
40(1)
Barriers erected deliberately
40(1)
Innocent barriers
41(1)
Economies of scale
41(1)
Experience curve
42(3)
Learning
43(1)
Specilization
44(1)
2.3 The market for goods and services
45(11)
Monopoly
45(1)
The economist's view
45(1)
The view of the authorities
46(1)
Problems associated with monopoly
46(3)
Control of monopoly power
47(2)
Oligopoly
49(1)
Collusion
50(4)
Explicit collusion
51(1)
Implicit collusion
52(1)
The breakdown of collusion
53(1)
Monopolistic competition
54(2)
2.4 The European Union and competition policy
56(4)
Agreements that restrict competition
58(1)
Horizontal agreements
58(1)
Vertical agreements
59(1)
Summary
59(1)
2.5 Contestable markets
60(1)
2.6 Structural analysis of competitive forces
61(8)
Rivalry among competitors
62(2)
The number and relative size of competitors within an industry
62(1)
The rate of growth in an industry
62(2)
Cost conditions
64(1)
Lack of product differentiation
64(1)
High exit barriers
64(1)
Threat of entry
64(3)
Economies of scale and absolute cost advantages
65(1)
Legal barriers
65(1)
Capital requirements
66(1)
Access to distribution channels
66(1)
Threat of retaliation
66(1)
Threat of substitution
67(1)
The propensity of the buyer to substitute
67(1)
Switching costs
67(1)
The relative price and performance of substitutes
67(1)
Bargaining power of buyers and suppliers
68(1)
Products are undifferentiated and substitutes are available
68(1)
Buyer concentration is high
68(1)
Threat of backward integration
69(1)
2.7 Competitor analysis
69(6)
Conclusion
71(1)
Summary of main points
72(1)
References
73(2)
3 The international economic environment
75(52)
Learning outcomes 75(1)
3.1 Introduction
75(1)
3.2 Macroeconomic accounts
76(3)
3.3 Macroeconomic goals
79(1)
3.4 The circular flow
80(2)
3.5 Structural changes in the major economies
82(3)
Industrial structure
84(1)
3.6 Economic growth
85(6)
What factors affect growth rates?
86(1)
Growth and structural change
86(3)
The costs of growth
89(2)
3.7 Inflationary pressures
91(7)
Why the concern about inflation?
92(2)
The causes of inflation
94(2)
Non-monetarist views of inflation
96(2)
3.8 The role of the state in the economy
98(6)
Economic cycles
101(3)
3.9 Unemployment
104(2)
3.10 International trade
106(10)
Exports by country
107(2)
Composition of international trade
109(2)
Trade barriers
111(1)
Trading blocs
112(2)
Exchange rate systems
114(1)
Fixed exchange rate
114(1)
Floating exchange rate
115(1)
3.11 Europe as one
116(7)
Mergers and acquisitions in the Single European Market (SEM)
117(1)
Maastricht and beyond
118(1)
EMU Stage 1 (July 1990-31 December 1994)
119(1)
EMU Stage 2 (1 January 1994-between 1997 and 1999)
119(1)
EMU Stage 3 (starts between 1997 and 1999)
119(1)
Implications of EMU for businesses
119(2)
After Maastricht
121(1)
Further enlargement of the European Union
122(1)
Conclusion
123(1)
Summary of main points
124(1)
References
125(2)
4 The technological environment
127(32)
Learning outcomes 127(1)
4.1 Introduction
127(1)
4.2 Why is technology important?
128(4)
What is technology?
128(1)
A historical perspective
129(1)
Technology and modern organizations
130(2)
4.3 Funding of research and development in industrial countries
132(7)
National differences
132(5)
Sectoral differences
137(2)
4.4 Some general technologies
139(6)
Information-based technologies
139(1)
Advanced manufacturing technology
140(3)
Supply chain management
143(1)
Electronic data interchange
143(2)
4.5 Technology and organization
145(5)
Technology and organization structure
145(2)
Technology and jobs
147(1)
Technology and productivity
148(1)
Teleworking
148(2)
4.6 Managing technology
150(5)
Technology development
150(1)
Integrating technology in the firm
151(1)
The organization of research and development
152(3)
Conclusion
155(1)
Summary of main points
155(1)
References
156(3)
5 The social and demographic environment
159(40)
Learning outcomes 159(1)
5.1 The social environment
160(1)
Introduction
160(1)
5.2 National culture
161(4)
5.3 Demographic forces
165(2)
Introduction
165(1)
Population structure and life expectancy: a small-scale comparison
166(1)
Population structure: European Union comparisons
167(3)
Demographic dynamism and ageing
170(2)
International migration: the cases of Germany and the Republic of Ireland
172(2)
Migration patterns within the European Union
174(1)
Deurbanization: the case of the United Kingdom
175(1)
The global pattern of population growth
176(1)
5.4 Population dynamics: consequences for organizations and governments
177(7)
Introduction
177(2)
Demographic restructuring: commerical implications
179(2)
An ageing population: societal issues
181(3)
5.5 Social dynamics and their consequences for organizations
184(11)
Introduction
184(1)
Changing health expectations: business consequences
184(3)
The family: changing patterns
187(2)
Rising crime: myth or realtiy?
189(2)
The changing face of organized labour
191(4)
Conclusion
195(1)
Summary of main points
195(1)
References
196(3)
6 The ecological environment
199(42)
Learning outcomes 199(1)
6.1 Introduction
199(2)
6.2 The impact of the marketplace on the environment: an economic perspective
201(9)
Introduction
201(1)
The theory of demand
202(2)
The theory of supply
204(3)
Price determination
207(3)
6.3 Market forces and the environment
210(4)
Introduction
210(2)
Actions by companies which affect other companies
212(1)
Actions by companies which affect individuals
212(1)
Actions by individuals which affect companies
213(1)
Actions by individuals which affect other individulas
213(1)
Summary
213(1)
6.4 Intervention measures available to limit externalities
214(6)
Introduction
214(1)
Promotion of bargaining
215(1)
Taxes and charges
215(2)
Marketable permits
217(1)
Grants or subsidies
218(1)
Regulation and anti-monopoly legislation
218(2)
6.5 Government regulation at different geo-political scales
220(4)
Regulation at global/regional level
220(2)
Regulation at national level
222(1)
Regulation at local level
223(1)
6.6 Organizational agendas
224(9)
Introduction
224(1)
Environmental stances adopted by organizations
225(2)
The importance of the organization's environmental context
227(1)
The influence of stakeholder power
228(4)
Self-regulation
232(1)
6.7 The position of the consumer
233(4)
Conclusion
237(1)
Summary of main points
237(1)
References
238(3)
7 The political and legal envrionment
241(36)
Learning outcomes 241(1)
7.1 Introduction
241(1)
7.2 The impact of political decisions at different geo-political scales
242(11)
Global scale
243(4)
National scale
247(1)
The impact of government: the United Kingdom case
248(3)
Local scale
251(2)
7.3 The European Union
253(9)
Introduction
253(4)
The European Commission
257(1)
The Council of Ministers (the Council of the European Union)
258(1)
The European Court of Justice
259(1)
The European Parliament
260(1)
Legislative procedures
260(2)
7.4 Support for industry and the regions
262(4)
Introduction
262(1)
Regional policy
262(4)
7.5 Democratic systems of government
266(4)
Constitutions and the role of the legislative, judicial and administrative functions of government
266(4)
7.6 Classifying laws
270(3)
7.7 Sources of law and the court system in England and Wales
273(1)
Statutes
273(1)
Decisions taken by judges
273(1)
The court system
274(1)
Conclusion
274(1)
Summary of main points
275(1)
References
276(1)
8 The public sector environment
277(34)
Learning outcomes 277(1)
8.1 Dynamism in the public sector
277(11)
Introduction
277(2)
The market system, public goods and change
279(1)
Political ideology and economic circumstances: the roots of change in the United Kingdom
280(5)
The wider public sector 'business' environment
285(1)
Private and public sector environmental contrasts
286(2)
8.2 Privatization and deregulation
288(5)
Introduction
288(1)
Privatization: aims, criticisms and the future
289(2)
Regulating privatized monopolies
291(1)
Deregulation
292(1)
8.3 Changing the face of public sector organizations
293(6)
Exposing government services to competitive forces
294(2)
Consumerism: charters and league tables
296(2)
Structural changes in the public sector
298(1)
Public and private sector collaborative partnerships
299()
8.4 The consequences of environmental change: managerialism
299(10)
Private managerial practies and public objectives
299(2)
New public management
301(2)
The British Civil Service
303(4)
Public sector change: drivers and resistors
307(2)
Conclusion
309(1)
Summary of main points
309(1)
References
310(1)
9 Challenges and changes
311(28)
Learning outcomes 311(1)
9.1 Introduction
311(4)
The nature of the business environment
313(2)
9.2 Implications for organizations
315(9)
Implications for long-term planning
316(1)
Flexible working
317(7)
9.3 Implications for individuals
324(4)
9.4 Implications for groups
328(3)
9.5 Implications for governments
331(5)
Globalization
331(1)
Technological change
332(1)
Flexible working and the role of government
333(1)
Role of government
334(2)
Conclusion
336(1)
Summary of main points
337(1)
References
338(1)
PART II CASE STUDIES 339(76)
10 Business environment case studies
341(74)
10.1 Introduction
341(74)
Case Study 10.1: Europe's largest employer: the National Health Service
343(13)
Case Study 10.2: The hotel industry: an Anglo-French perspective
356(7)
Case Study 10.3: Worlds apart: the business environment of Oxfam
363(8)
Case Study 10.4: H.P. Bulmer: cider, and a lot more besides
371(10)
Case Study 10.5: Telecommunications: a changing industry
381(17)
Case Study 10.6: Environmental concerns: the case of Scania
388(11)
Case Study 10.7: The industrialized countries of South-East Asia
399(7)
Case Study 10.8: Small and medium-sized enterprises
406(9)
General index 415(6)
Organization and sector index 421(3)
International and places index 424

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