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C How to Program / Edition 5
     

C How to Program / Edition 5

by Paul J. Deitel, H. M. Deitel, H. M. Deitel
 

ISBN-10: 0132404168

ISBN-13: 9780132404167

Pub. Date: 09/08/2006

Publisher: Prentice Hall

The Deitels' groundbreaking How to Program series offers unparalleled breadth and depth of programming concepts and intermediate-level topics for further study. The books in this series feature hundreds of complete, working programs with thousands of lines of code.

Includes strong treatment of structured algorithm and program development in ANSI/ISO C with

Overview

The Deitels' groundbreaking How to Program series offers unparalleled breadth and depth of programming concepts and intermediate-level topics for further study. The books in this series feature hundreds of complete, working programs with thousands of lines of code.

Includes strong treatment of structured algorithm and program development in ANSI/ISO C with 150 working C programs. New chapters added for C99 and game programming with the Allegro C Library. Includes rich, 300-page treatment of object-oriented programming in C++. Presents each new concept in the context of a complete, working program, immediately followed by one or more windows showing the program's input/output dialog. Enhances the Live-Code Approach with syntax coloring. Provides Helpful Programming Tips, all marked by icons: Good Programming Practices, Common Programming Errors, Error-Prevention Tips, Performance Tips, Portability Tips, Software Engineering Observations, Look and Feel Observations.

A valuable reference for programmers and anyone interested in learning the C programming language.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780132404167
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
09/08/2006
Series:
How to Program Series
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
1112
Product dimensions:
6.96(w) x 9.16(h) x 1.44(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xxi

1 Introduction to Computers, the Internet and

theWeb 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 What Is a Computer? 4

1.3 Computer Organization 4

1.4 Early Operating Systems 5

1.5 Personal, Distributed and Client/Server Computing 6

1.6 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-Level Languages 6

1.7 Fortran, COBOL, Pascal and Ada 8

1.8 History of C 8

1.9 C Standard Library 9

1.10 C++ 10

1.11 Java 11

1.12 BASIC, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Visual C# and .NET 11

1.13 Key Software Trend: Object Technology 12

1.14 Typical C Program Development Environment 13

1.15 Hardware Trends 16

1.16 History of the Internet 16

1.17 History of the World Wide Web 18

1.18 Notes About C and This Book 18

1.19 Web Resources 19

2 Introduction to C Programming 32

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 A Simple C Program: Printing a Line of Text 33

2.3 Another Simple C Program: Adding Two Integers 37

2.4 Memory Concepts 42

2.5 Arithmetic in C 43

2.6 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 47

3 Structured Program Development in C 62

3.1 Introduction 63

3.2 Algorithms 63

Contents

x Contents

3.3 Pseudocode 64

3.4 Control Structures 64

3.5 The if Selection Statement 66

3.6 The if…else Selection Statement 68

3.7 The while Repetition Statement 71

3.8 Formulating Algorithms Case Study 1: Counter-Controlled Repetition 72

3.9 Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement

Case Study 2: Sentinel-Controlled Repetition 75

3.10 Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement

Case Study 3: Nested Control Structures 81

3.11 Assignment Operators 85

3.12 Increment and Decrement Operators 85

4 C Program Control 107

4.1 Introduction 108

4.2 Repetition Essentials 108

4.3 Counter-Controlled Repetition 109

4.4 for Repetition Statement 111

4.5 for Statement: Notes and Observations 113

4.6 Examples Using the for Statement 114

4.7 switch Multiple-Selection Statement 118

4.8 do…while Repetition Statement 124

4.9 break and continue Statements 126

4.10 Logical Operators 128

4.11 Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators 130

4.12 Structured Programming Summary 132

5 C Functions 151

5.1 Introduction 152

5.2 Program Modules in C 152

5.3 Math Library Functions 153

5.4 Functions 155

5.5 Function Definitions 156

5.6 Function Prototypes 160

5.7 Function Call Stack and Activation Records 162

5.8 Headers 163

5.9 Calling Functions: Call-by-Value and Call-by-Reference 164

5.10 Random Number Generation 165

5.11 Example: A Game of Chance 170

5.12 Storage Classes 174

5.13 Scope Rules 176

5.14 Recursion 179

5.15 Example Using Recursion: Fibonacci Series 183

5.16 Recursion vs. Iteration 186

Contents xi

6 C Arrays 208

6.1 Introduction 209

6.2 Arrays 209

6.3 Defining Arrays 211

6.4 Array Examples 211

6.5 Passing Arrays to Functions 225

6.6 Sorting Arrays 229

6.7 Case Study: Computing Mean, Median and Mode Using Arrays 232

6.8 Searching Arrays 235

6.9 Multiple-Subscripted Arrays 242

7 C Pointers 267

7.1 Introduction 268

7.2 Pointer Variable Definitions and Initialization 268

7.3 Pointer Operators 269

7.4 Passing Arguments to Functions by Reference 272

7.5 Using the const Qualifier with Pointers 276

7.6 Bubble Sort Using Call-by-Reference 282

7.7 sizeof Operator 285

7.8 Pointer Expressions and Pointer Arithmetic 288

7.9 Relationship between Pointers and Arrays 290

7.10 Arrays of Pointers 295

7.11 Case Study: Card Shuffling and Dealing Simulation 295

7.12 Pointers to Functions 300

8 C Characters and Strings 325

8.1 Introduction 326

8.2 Fundamentals of Strings and Characters 326

8.3 Character-Handling Library 328

8.4 String-Conversion Functions 333

8.5 Standard Input/Output Library Functions 338

8.6 String-Manipulation Functions of the String-Handling Library 343

8.7 Comparison Functions of the String-Handling Library 345

8.8 Search Functions of the String-Handling Library 347

8.9 Memory Functions of the String-Handling Library 354

8.10 Other Functions of the String-Handling Library 358

9 C Formatted Input/Output 372

9.1 Introduction 373

9.2 Streams 373

9.3 Formatting Output with printf 373

9.4 Printing Integers 374

9.5 Printing Floating-Point Numbers 376

xii Contents

9.6 Printing Strings and Characters 377

9.7 Other Conversion Specifiers 379

9.8 Printing with Field Widths and Precision 380

9.9 Using Flags in the printf Format Control String 383

9.10 Printing Literals and Escape Sequences 385

9.11 Reading Formatted Input with scanf 386

10 C Structures, Unions, Bit Manipulations

and Enumerations 401

10.1 Introduction 402

10.2 Structure Definitions 402

10.3 Initializing Structures 405

10.4 Accessing Members of Structures 405

10.5 Using Structures with Functions 407

10.6 typedef 407

10.7 Example: High-Performance Card Shuffling and Dealing Simulation 408

10.8 Unions 411

10.9 Bitwise Operators 413

10.10 Bit Fields 422

10.11 Enumeration Constants 426

11 C File Processing 438

11.1 Introduction 439

11.2 Data Hierarchy 439

11.3 Files and Streams 441

11.4 Creating a Sequential-Access File 442

11.5 Reading Data from a Sequential-Access File 447

11.6 Random-Access Files 452

11.7 Creating a Random-Access File 453

11.8 Writing Data Randomly to a Random-Access File 455

11.9 Reading Data from a Random-Access File 458

11.10 Case Study: Transaction-Processing Program 459

12 C Data Structures 477

12.1 Introduction 478

12.2 Self-Referential Structures 479

12.3 Dynamic Memory Allocation 479

12.4 Linked Lists 481

12.5 Stacks 490

12.6 Queues 496

12.7 Trees 502

13 C Preprocessor 533

13.1 Introduction 534

Contents xiii

13.2 #include Preprocessor Directive 534

13.3 #define Preprocessor Directive: Symbolic Constants 535

13.4 #define Preprocessor Directive: Macros 535

13.5 Conditional Compilation 537

13.6 #error and #pragma Preprocessor Directives 538

13.7 # and ## Operators 538

13.8 Line Numbers 539

13.9 Predefined Symbolic Constants 539

13.10 Assertions 540

14 Other C Topics 545

14.1 Introduction 546

14.2 Redirecting Input/Output on Linux/UNIX and Windows Systems 546

14.3 Variable-Length Argument Lists 547

14.4 Using Command-Line Arguments 549

14.5 Notes on Compiling Multiple-Source-File Programs 551

14.6 Program Termination with exit and atexit 552

14.7 volatile Type Qualifier 554

14.8 Suffixes for Integer and Floating-Point Constants 554

14.9 More on Files 554

14.10 Signal Handling 557

14.11 Dynamic Memory Allocation: Functions calloc and realloc 559

14.12 Unconditional Branching with goto 560

15 Game Programming with the

Allegro C Library 566

15.1 Introduction 567

15.2 Installing Allegro 567

15.3 A Simple Allegro Program 568

15.4 Simple Graphics: Importing Bitmaps and Blitting 569

15.5 Animation with Double Buffering 574

15.6 Importing and Playing Sounds 581

15.7 Keyboard Input 585

15.8 Fonts and Displaying Text 590

15.9 Implementing the Game of Pong 596

15.10 Timers in Allegro 602

15.11 The Grabber and Allegro Datafiles 608

15.12 Other Allegro Capabilities 616

15.13 Allegro Internet and Web Resources 617

16 Sorting: A Deeper Look 624

16.1 Introduction 625

16.2 Big O Notation 625

xiv Contents

16.3 Selection Sort 626

16.4 Insertion Sort 630

16.5 Merge Sort 633

17 Introduction to C99 644

17.1 Introduction 645

17.2 Support for C99 645

17.3 New C99 Headers 646

17.4 // Comments 647

17.5 Mixing Declarations and Executable Code 647

17.6 Declaring a Variable in a for Statement Header 649

17.7 Designated Initializers and Compound Literals 650

17.8 Type bool 653

17.9 Implicit int in Function Declarations 655

17.10 Complex Numbers 656

17.11 Variable-Length Arrays 657

17.12 Other C99 Features 659

17.13 Internet and Web Resources 661

18 C++ as a Better C; Introducing Object

Technology 666

18.1 Introduction 667

18.2 C++ 667

18.3 A Simple Program: Adding Two Integers 668

18.4 C++ Standard Library 670

18.5 Header Files 671

18.6 Inline Functions 673

18.7 References and Reference Parameters 676

18.8 Empty Parameter Lists 680

18.9 Default Arguments 681

18.10 Unary Scope Resolution Operator 683

18.11 Function Overloading 684

18.12 Function Templates 687

18.13 Introduction to Object Technology and the UML 690

18.14 Wrap-Up 694

19 Introduction to Classes and Objects 701

19.1 Introduction 702

19.2 Classes, Objects, Member Functions and Data Members 702

19.3 Overview of the Chapter Examples 703

19.4 Defining a Class with a Member Function 704

19.5 Defining a Member Function with a Parameter 708

19.6 Data Members, set Functions and get Functions 711

Contents xv

19.7 Initializing Objects with Constructors 718

19.8 Placing a Class in a Separate File for Reusability 722

19.9 Separating Interface from Implementation 726

19.10 Validating Data with set Functions 732

19.11 Wrap-Up 737

20 Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 1 744

20.1 Introduction 745

20.2 Time Class Case Study 746

20.3 Class Scope and Accessing Class Members 751

20.4 Separating Interface from Implementation 753

20.5 Access Functions and Utility Functions 755

20.6 Time Class Case Study: Constructors with Default Arguments 757

20.7 Destructors 763

20.8 When Constructors and Destructors Are Called 764

20.9 Time Class Case Study: A Subtle Trap–Returning a Reference to

a private Data Member 767

20.10 Default Memberwise Assignment 770

20.11 Software Reusability 772

20.12 Wrap-Up 773

21 Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 2 779

21.1 Introduction 780

21.2 const (Constant) Objects and const Member Functions 780

21.3 Composition: Objects as Members of Classes 790

21.4 friend Functions and friend Classes 797

21.5 Using the this Pointer 801

21.6 Dynamic Memory Management with Operators

new and delete 806

21.7 static Class Members 808

21.8 Data Abstraction and Information Hiding 814

21.8.1 Example: Array Abstract Data Type 815

21.8.2 Example: String Abstract Data Type 816

21.8.3 Example: Queue Abstract Data Type 816

21.9 Container Classes and Iterators 817

21.10 Proxy Classes 817

21.11 Wrap-Up 821

22 Operator Overloading 827

22.1 Introduction 828

22.2 Fundamentals of Operator Overloading 829

22.3 Restrictions on Operator Overloading 830

22.4 Operator Functions as Class Members vs. Global Functions 832

xvi Contents

22.5 Overloading Stream Insertion and Stream Extraction Operators 833

22.6 Overloading Unary Operators 837

22.7 Overloading Binary Operators 837

22.8 Case Study: Array Class 838

22.9 Converting between Types 850

22.10 Overloading ++ and —— 851

22.11 explicit Constructors 852

22.12 Wrap-Up 856

23 Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance 868

23.1 Introduction 869

23.2 Base Classes and Derived Classes 870

23.3 protected Members 873

23.4 Relationship between Base Classes and Derived Classes 873

23.4.1 Creating and Using a CommissionEmployee Class 874

23.4.2 Creating a BasePlusCommissionEmployee Class Without

Using Inheritance 879

23.4.3 Creating a CommissionEmployee—BasePlusCommissionEmployee

Inheritance Hierarchy 885

23.4.4 CommissionEmployee—BasePlusCommissionEmployee Inheritance

Hierarchy Using protected Data 890

23.4.5 CommissionEmployee—BasePlusCommissionEmployee Inheritance

Hierarchy Using private Data 897

23.5 Constructors and Destructors in Derived Classes 905

23.6 public, protected and private Inheritance 913

23.7 Software Engineering with Inheritance 913

23.8 Wrap-Up 915

24 Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism 921

24.1 Introduction 922

24.2 Polymorphism Examples 924

24.3 Relationships Among Objects in an Inheritance Hierarchy 925

24.3.1 Invoking Base-Class Functions from Derived-Class Objects 925

24.3.2 Aiming Derived-Class Pointers at Base-Class Objects 933

24.3.3 Derived-Class Member-Function Calls via Base-Class Pointers 934

24.3.4 Virtual Functions 936

24.3.5 Summary of the Allowed Assignments Between Base-Class

and Derived-Class Objects and Pointers 942

24.4 Type Fields and switch Statements 942

24.5 Abstract Classes and Pure virtual Functions 943

24.6 Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism 945

24.6.1 Creating Abstract Base Class Employee 947

24.6.2 Creating Concrete Derived Class SalariedEmployee 950

24.6.3 Creating Concrete Derived Class HourlyEmployee 952

Contents xvii

24.6.4 Creating Concrete Derived Class CommissionEmployee 955

24.6.5 Creating Indirect Concrete Derived Class

BasePlusCommissionEmployee 957

24.6.6 Demonstrating Polymorphic Processing 959

24.7 (Optional) Polymorphism, Virtual Functions and Dynamic

Binding “Under the Hood” 963

24.8 Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism and Runtime Type

Information with Downcasting, dynamic_cast, typeid and type_info 967

24.9 Virtual Destructors 970

24.10 Wrap-Up 971

25 Templates 976

25.1 Introduction 977

25.2 Function Templates 978

25.3 Overloading Function Templates 981

25.4 Class Templates 981

25.5 Nontype Parameters and Default Types for Class Templates 988

25.6 Notes on Templates and Inheritance 989

25.7 Notes on Templates and Friends 989

25.8 Notes on Templates and static Members 990

25.9 Wrap-Up 991

26 Stream Input/Output 996

26.1 Introduction 997

26.2 Streams 998

26.2.1 Classic Streams vs. Standard Streams 999

26.2.2 iostream Library Header Files 999

26.2.3 Stream Input/Output Classes and Objects 999

26.3 Stream Output 1002

26.3.1 Output of char
• Variables 1002

26.3.2 Character Output Using Member Function put 1002

26.4 Stream Input 1003

26.4.1 get and getline Member Functions 1004

26.4.2 istream Member Functions peek, putback and ignore 1007

26.4.3 Type-Safe I/O 1007

26.5 Unformatted I/O Using read, write and gcount 1007

26.6 Introduction to Stream Manipulators 1008

26.6.1 Integral Stream Base: dec, oct, hex and setbase 1009

26.6.2 Floating-Point Precision (precision, setprecision) 1010

26.6.3 Field Width (width, setw) 1011

26.6.4 User-Defined Output Stream Manipulators 1013

26.7 Stream Format States and Stream Manipulators 1014

26.7.1 Trailing Zeros and Decimal Points (showpoint) 1015

26.7.2 Justification (left, right and internal) 1016

xviii Contents

26.7.3 Padding (fill, setfill) 1018

26.7.4 Integral Stream Base (dec, oct, hex, showbase) 1019

26.7.5 Floating-Point Numbers; Scientific and Fixed Notation

(scientific, fixed) 1020

26.7.6 Uppercase/Lowercase Control (uppercase) 1020

26.7.7 Specifying Boolean Format (boolalpha) 1022

26.7.8 Setting and Resetting the Format State via Member

Function flags 1023

26.8 Stream Error States 1024

26.9 Tying an Output Stream to an Input Stream 1027

26.10 Wrap-Up 1027

27 Exception Handling 1038

27.1 Introduction 1039

27.2 Exception-Handling Overview 1040

27.3 Example: Handling an Attempt to Divide by Zero 1040

27.4 When to Use Exception Handling 1047

27.5 Rethrowing an Exception 1048

27.6 Exception Specifications 1049

27.7 Processing Unexpected Exceptions 1050

27.8 Stack Unwinding 1051

27.9 Constructors, Destructors and Exception Handling 1052

27.10 Exceptions and Inheritance 1053

27.11 Processing new Failures 1053

27.12 Class auto_ptr and Dynamic Memory Allocation 1057

27.13 Standard Library Exception Hierarchy 1060

27.14 Other Error-Handling Techniques 1062

27.15 Wrap-Up 1062

A Internet andWeb Resources 1070

A.1 Free C/C++ Compilers and Development Tools 1070

A.2 C Resource Sites 1071

A.3 C99 1071

A.4 C Projects, Freeware and Shareware 1073

A.5 C Source Code 1073

A.6 C Articles and Whitepapers 1073

A.7 C Tutorials and Webcasts 1074

A.8 GNOME and GLib 1075

A.9 SWIG 1076

A.10 Objective-C 1076

A.11 C Sample Chapters and eBooks 1077

A.12 C Wikis 1077

A.13 C FAQs 1077

A.14 C Newsgroups 1078

Contents xix

A.15 C Blogs 1078

A.16 C Downloads from Download.com 1078

A.17 C Game Programming 1078

A.18 Allegro Game Programming Resources 1079

A.19 Jobs for C Programmers 1081

A.20 Deitel C Training 1081

B Operator Precedence Charts 1082

C ASCII Character Set 1086

D Number Systems 1087

D.1 Introduction 1088

D.2 Abbreviating Binary Numbers as Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers 1091

D.3 Converting Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers to Binary Numbers 1092

D.4 Converting from Binary, Octal or Hexadecimal to Decimal 1092

D.5 Converting from Decimal to Binary, Octal or Hexadecimal 1093

D.6 Negative Binary Numbers: Two’s Complement Notation 1095

E Game Programming: Solving Sudoku 1100

Index 1109

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