A Calculated Risk: The U.S. Decision to Recognize Israel by Evan Wilson
In the aftermath of World War II and the Holocaust, the Truman White House led the effort to establish the state of Israel. But, was it inevitable that the U.S. would endorse the concept of a Jewish state? Was U.S. policy entirely pro-Jewish? To what extent did the State Department influence Presidents Roosevelt and Truman in regard to Palestine? How aware were the two presidents of the probable consequences of their decisions about the Middle East? A Calculated Risk explores these questions and more. It examines the intricate international diplomacy that helped pave the way for the creation of the Jewish state and evaluates the conflicting pressures brought to bear on the U.S. with respect to the Palestine question, and specifically the recognition of Israel, from 1942-1948. Impartial, well researched, and highly readable, it tells the complete story of the balancing act that changed the geopolitical landscape in the Middle East.
Evan M. Wilson, author of two books and numerous articles, is a foreign service officer, retired, with 30 years' experience focused in the Near East and South Asia. Upon retirement he had been Minister and Consul General at Jerusalem for more than three years and had won the State Department Superior Honor Award for his work during the 1967 crisis and the Six-Day War in Jerusalem.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments 6 Foreword 10 Preface 21 Introduction: The Setting and the Cast of Characters 33 The Biltmore Program Calls for a Jewish State 67 The United States Finds a Policy 77 Palestine Becomes a Political Issue 95 Roosevelt's Last Months 109 President Truman and the 100,000 Jews 124 The Abortive Attempt at Anglo-American Cooperation 143 Bridging the Gap: London Conference Breaks Down 193 Palestine Before the United Nations 211 The State of Israel Is Born 248 Epilogue 283 Appendixes Order (No. 21) Establishing the Department of State Division of Near Eastern Affairs 296 Responsibilities of the Near East Division 297 Extracts from Theodor Herzl's Der Judenstuat, 1896 299 Program of the First World Zionist Congress 299 The Balfour Declaration 300 The Zionist (Biltmore) Program 301 Statement for Issuance by the Governments of the United States and the United Kingdom Regarding Palestine 304 Proposed Congressional Resolutions (1944) 305 President Roosevelt to Senator Robert F. Wagner 307 Palestine (A Summary) 308 President Roosevelt's Letter to King Ibn Saud, April 5, 1945 309 Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel 311 The Agent of the Provisional Government of Israel (Epstein) to President Truman 316 Notes 318 Bibliography 367 Index 377