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Case Studies in Comparative Politics / Edition 1

Case Studies in Comparative Politics / Edition 1

by David J. Samuels


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Case Studies in Comparative Politics / Edition 1

Debuting in its first edition and written by a new generation of area studies experts, Case Studies in Comparative Politics follows a questions-based approach that helps readers understand different countries’ political histories, institutions, identities, and interests and why each country is politically interesting and relevant. When used on its own or with the accompanying thematic survey, Case Studies in Comparative Politics asks—and answers—the same important questions that political scientists research and that are relevant to anyone interested in politics.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900205740092
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 02/22/2012
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 512
Product dimensions: 7.20(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

David J. Samuels is Benjamin E. Lippincott Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota.

The United Kingdom: Ben Ansell and Jane Gingrich are Assistant Professors of Political Science at the University of Minnesota.

Germany: David Art is Associate Professor of Political Science at Tufts University.

France: Erik Bleich is Professor of Political Science at Middlebury College.

Japan: Ethan Scheiner is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of California–Davis

India: Steven Wilkinson is Nilekani Professor of India and South Asian Studies and Professor of Political Science and International Affairs at Yale University.

Mexico: Cecilia Martinez-Gallardo is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill.

Russia: Graeme Robertson is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill.

Nigeria: Alexandra Scacco is Assistant Professor of Politics at New York University.

China: Andrew Mertha is Associate Professor of Government at Cornell University.

Iran: Arzoo Osanloo is Associate Professor in the Law, Societies, and Justice Program at the University of Washington.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Chapter 1 Introduction David Samuels 1

Chapter Question: Why study country cases in comparative politics?

Introduction 2

Comparative Politics 3

Why These Ten Countries? 6

Chapter Framework 11

Historical Overview 12

Early versus Late-forming States 14

Globalization and the State 15

Institutions 17

Democratic Regimes 19

Non-Democratic Regimes 21

Regime Change 24

Identities 25

Economic and Cultural Forms of Identity 25

Political-Identity Cleavages 26

The Sources of Political Identity 27

Interests 28

Social Movement 29

Interest Groups 30

Political Parties 30

The Contemporary Context 32

Political Violence 32

Political Economy 33

Conclusion 36

Chapter 2 United Kingdom Ben Ansell Jane Gingrich 39

Chapter Question: How did limited government emerge in a country without a written constitution?

Introduction to the United Kingdom 40

Historical Overview of the United Kingdom 41

The Establishment of the State 41

The Gradual Emergence of Limited Government 44

Twentieth-Century Developments 46

The Contemporary United Kingdom 47

Institutions of the United Kingdom 49

Institutions Promoting Effective Government 51

Factors Supporting Limited Government 57

Identities in the United Kingdom 60

Class Identity 60

Regional, Religious, and Ethnic Identities 62

Gender and Quality-of-Life Issues 65

Interests in the United Kingdom 67

Business and Labor in the Party System 68

"Policy Communities" in Britain 70

Civil Society and Social Movements in the United Kingdom 71

Mass Media 72

Conclusion 73

Chapter 3 Germany David Art 77

Chapter Question: How did Germany overcome its tumultuous history and become a healthy democracy?

Introduction to Germany 78

Historical Overview of Germany 78

The Second Reich 79

The Weimar Republic 82

The Nazi Regime 83

The Postwar Era: Division and Reunification 85

Institutions of Germany 88

"Chancellor Democracy" 88

The Judiciary 90

Federalism 90

International Institutions 91

Identities in Germany 94

Pre-War Identities 94

Political Culture after WWII 95

Incorporating East Germany 97

Immigration and German Identity 98

Interests in Germany 102

The Postwar Settlement 103

Political Parties 104

Challenges to the German Model 109

Conclusion 111

Chapter 4 France Erik Bleich 114

Chapter Question: Why do French citizens engage in such frequent and dramatic forms of protest?

Introduction to France 115

Historical Overview of France 118

From the Middle Ages to the Ancien Régime 118

The French Revolution and Its Aftermath 119

Regime Change in the Nineteenth Century 120

Consolidating Democracy in the Twentieth Century 120

Institutions of France 123

Semi-Presidential Democracy and the Executive Branch 124

The Legislative Branch 126

The Judicial Branch 127

Electoral Institutions 128

Identities in France 132

Class Divisions 134

Nationalism and Its Challengers 135

Religious Identities versus Laïcité 136

Post-Materialist Identities 137

Interests in France 138

Interest Groups 139

Political Parties 140

The Interests of the State 142

Examples of Protest 142

Conclusion 147

Chapter 5 Japan Ethan Scheiner 150

Chapter Question: How did a single political party dominate Japan's democracy for more than half a century?

Introduction to Japan 151

Historical Overview of Japan 154

The Tokugawa Era 154

The Meiji Era 155

Economic Growth and the Rise and Decline of Democracy before World War II 156

Rebuilding in the Postwar Era 158

The 1990s 160

The 2000s 161

Institutions of Japan 165

Unitarism 166

Parliamentarism 166

Electoral System 167

The Weak Judiciary 173

The Powerful Bureaucracy 173

Identities of Japan 175

Japanese Homogeneity 175

Class Identity 177

Status in Japan 177

Disadvantaged Position of Women 179

Interests in Japan 180

Postwar Interests 181

Environmental Interest Groups 181

Modern versus Traditional Interests 183

Koizumi's Reforms and the Fall of the LDP 187

Conclusion 189

Chapter 6 India Steven I. Wilkinson 194

Chapter Question: Why has democracy persisted in India despite its colonial legacies of ethnic and religious strife, and widespread poverty and illiteracy?

Introduction to India 195

Historical Overview of India 198

The Mughal Empire 198

The British Empire 200

The Difficult Legacy of Colonialism 203

Institutions of India 207

Federalism 208

Parliament 209

Civil-Military Relations 211

The Judiciary 211

Political Parties 212

Election Commission 214

Identities in India 216

Castes 217

Languages 219

Religion 219

The Changing Politics of Caste Identity 222

Interests in India 225

Ethnic and Minority Interests 225

Voters 226

Rural Interests 226

The Poor 227

Business Interests 227

Freedom of the Press and Mass Media 228

Conclusion 230

Chapter 7 Mexico Cecilia Martínez-Gallardo 235

Chapter Question: Why is Mexico's democratic government unable to deal effectively with persistent poverty, corruption, and drug trafficking?

Introduction to Mexico 236

Historical Overview of Mexico 237

Colonial Mexico 237

Independent Mexico 240

The 1910 Revolution 241

The Establishment of One-Party Rule, 1917-1940 242

PRI Hegemony: 1940-1970 243

The Decline of the PRI: 1970-2000 244

Institutions of Mexico 250

Executive-Legislative Relations 251

The Judiciary 252

Federalism 254

Electoral Institutions 255

Identities in Mexico 258

Forming National Identity under the PRI 258

Ethnicity Makes a Comeback 260

Political Cleavages and Electoral Behavior 262

Interests in Mexico 264

Political Parties 264

Social Movements 266

Interest Groups 269

Conclusion 272

Chapter 8 Russia Graeme Roberston 277

Chapter Question: Why has Russia failed to consolidate democracy, remaining in many ways an authoritarian regime?

Introduction to Russia 278

Historical Overview of Russia 279

Geography and the Formation of the Russian State 279

The Russian Revolution and the Rise of the USSR 283

Reform and the Collapse of the USSR 284

Institutions in Russia 287

Constitutional Crisis 1992-1993 287

The Constitution: President, Prime Minister, and Parliament 288

Federalism 290

Elections 293

The "Tandemocracy" of President and Prime M inister 296

Identities in Russia 299

Ethnic Politics 299

Chechnya and the Politics of the Caucasus 301

Russian Nationalism 302

What Happened to Class Identity? 303

Religious Identity 304

Interests in Russia 306

Economic Reform, Economic Collapse, and the Rise of the "Oligarchs" 307

Putin, the Fall of the Oligarchs, and Business Interests 309

Labor 310

Political Parties 311

Social Movements 313

Conclusion 316

Chapter 9 Nigeria Alexandra Scacco 320

Chapter Question: What factors account for Nigeria's poor economic and political performance since independence?

Introduction to Nigeria 321

Historical Overview of Nigeria 323

The Pre-Colonial Period: A Diverse Territory 323

Colonial Nigeria: Unequal Regional Development 326

Nigeria since Independence: Political and Economic Crisis 328

Institutions of Nigeria 331

Nigeria's Political Institutions in Theory 332

Nigeria's Political Institutions in Practice 333

A "Critically Weak" State 334

Oil Dependence and State Weakness 339

Identities in Nigeria 342

Ethnic Diversity: Is Nigeria Too Diverse to Govern? 342

Ethnicity, Oil, and Violent Conflict 345

Interests of Nigeria 351

Political Parties 351

Where Is the Working Class? 354

Economic Interest Groups 356

Ethno-Regional Groups 357

The Military 357

Conclusion 359

Chapter 10 China Andrew Mertha 365

Chapter Question: How has China's authoritarian regime managed to build and consolidate state strength in just 60 years?

Introduction to China 366

Historical Overview of China 370

The Chinese Empire 370

The Chinese Republic 372

Consolidating the People's Republic of China 373

Mao's Attack on the State 375

The Emergence of the Contemporary PRC 377

Institutions of China 379

China's Elite Institutions 379

Local State Government 384

The Military 386

Identities in China 388

From Totalitarian to Authoritarian Identities 388

Nationalism as a Unifying Force 391

Ethnicity and Religion as Potentially Divisive Forces 393

Interests in China 396

State Organizations: The Case of the Military 397

Local Governments 398

The Media 398

Industrial and Professional Groups 399

Non-Governmental Organizations 399

Chinese Citizens 399

Conclusion 402

Chapter 11 Iran Arzoo Osanloo 407

Chapter Question: How does a dynamic civil society survive under repressive non-democratic governments in Iran?

Introduction to Iran 408

Historical Overview of Iran 409

Ancient Persia: From the Achaemenids to Sassanids 409

The Safavids and the Spread of Islam 412

Oil and the Rise of Nationalism in the Twentieth Century 413

The 1979 Iranian Revolution 416

Khatami and the Limits of Reform, 1997-2005 418

Ahmadinejad and Conservative Reaction, 2005-Present 419

Institutions of Iran 422

Republican Institutions 422

Islamic Institutions 425

Identities of Iran 430

Pre-Islamic "Persian": Achaemenids to Sassanids 430

Ethnic Identities 430

Religious Identities 431

Social Classes 433

Post-Revolutionary "Hybrid" Identities 433

Women in the Vanguard 434

Interests in Iran 436

Military Interests 436

Political Interests 437

Organized Interests 439

Nuclear and Scientific Interests 440

Examples of Protest 441

Conclusion 445

Glossary 449

Credits 465

Subject Index 467

Name Index 485

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