Born into a minor noble family, Catherine transformed herself into Empress of Russia by sheer determination. Possessing a brilliant mind and an insatiable curiosity as a young woman, she devoured the works of Enlightenment philosophers and, when she reached the throne, attempted to use their principles to guide her rule of the vast and backward Russian empire. She knew or corresponded with the preeminent historical figures of her time: Voltaire, Diderot, Frederick the Great, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, Marie Antoinette, and, surprisingly, the American naval hero, John Paul Jones.
Reaching the throne fired by Enlightenment philosophy and determined to become the embodiment of the “benevolent despot” idealized by Montesquieu, she found herself always contending with the deeply ingrained realities of Russian life, including serfdom. She persevered, and for thirty-four years the government, foreign policy, cultural development, and welfare of the Russian people were in her hands. She dealt with domestic rebellion, foreign wars, and the tidal wave of political change and violence churned up by the French Revolution that swept across Europe. Her reputation depended entirely on the perspective of the speaker. She was praised by Voltaire as the equal of the greatest of classical philosophers; she was condemned by her enemies, mostly foreign, as “the Messalina of the north.”
Catherine’s family, friends, ministers, generals, lovers, and enemies—all are here, vividly described. These included her ambitious, perpetually scheming mother; her weak, bullying husband, Peter (who left her lying untouched beside him for nine years after their marriage); her unhappy son and heir, Paul; her beloved grandchildren; and her “favorites”—the parade of young men from whom she sought companionship and the recapture of youth as well as sex. Here, too, is the giant figure of Gregory Potemkin, her most significant lover and possible husband, with whom she shared a passionate correspondence of love and separation, followed by seventeen years of unparalleled mutual achievement.
The story is superbly told. All the special qualities that Robert K. Massie brought to Nicholas and Alexandra and Peter the Great are present here: historical accuracy, depth of understanding, felicity of style, mastery of detail, ability to shatter myth, and a rare genius for finding and expressing the human drama in extraordinary lives.
History offers few stories richer in drama than that of Catherine the Great. In this book, this eternally fascinating woman is returned to life.
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Prince Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst was hardly distinguishable in the swarm of obscure, penurious noblemen who
cluttered the landscape and society of politically fragmented eighteenth-century Germany. Possessed neither of exceptional virtues nor alarming vices, Prince Christian exhibited the solid virtues of his Junker lineage: a stern sense of order, discipline, integrity, thrift, and piety, along with an unshakable lack of interest in gossip, intrigue, literature, and the wider world in general. Born in 1690, he had made a career as a professional soldier in the army of King Frederick William of Prussia. His military service in campaigns against Sweden, France, and Austria was meticulously conscientious, but his exploits on the battlefield were unremarkable, and nothing occurred either to accelerate or retard his career. When peace came, the king, who was once heard to refer to his loyal officer as "that idiot, Zerbst," gave him command of an infantry regiment garrisoning the port of Stettin, recently acquired from Sweden, on the Baltic coast of Pomerania. There, in 1727, Prince Christian, still a bachelor at thirty-seven, bowed to the pleas of his family and set himself to produce an heir. Wearing his best blue uniform and his shining ceremonial sword, he married fifteen-year-old Princess Johanna Elizabeth of Holstein-Gottorp, whom he scarcely knew. His family, which had arranged the match with hers, was giddy with delight; not only did the line of Anhalt-Zerbst seem assured, but Johanna's family stood a rung above them on the ladder of rank.
It was a poor match. There were the problems of difference in age; pairing an adolescent girl with a man in middle age usually stems from a confusion of motives and expectations. When Johanna, of a good family with little money, reached adolescence and her parents, without consulting her, arranged a match to a respectable man almost three times her age, Johanna could only consent. Even more unpromising, the characters and temperaments of the two were almost entirely opposite. Christian Augustus was simple, honest, ponderous, reclusive, and thrifty; Johanna Elizabeth was complicated, vivacious, pleasure-loving, and extravagant. She was considered beautiful, and with arched eyebrows, fair, curly hair, charm, and an exuberant eagerness to please, she attracted people easily. In company, she felt a need to captivate, but as she grew older, she tried too hard. In time, other flaws appeared. Too much gay talk revealed her as shallow; when she was thwarted, her charm soured to irritability and her quick temper suddenly exploded. Underlying this behavior, and Johanna had known this from the beginning, was the fact that her marriage had been a terrible-and was now an inescapable-mistake.
Confirmation first came when she saw the house in Stettin to which her new husband brought her. Johanna had spent her youth in unusually elegant surroundings. Because she was one of twelve children in a family that formed a minor branch of the ducal Holsteins, her father, the Lutheran bishop of Lübeck, had passed her along for upbringing to her godmother, the childless Duchess of Brunswick. Here, in the most sumptuously magnificent court in north Germany, she had become accustomed to a life of beautiful clothes, sophisticated company, balls, operas, concerts, fireworks, hunting parties, and constant, tittering gossip.
Her new husband, Christian Augustus, a career officer existing on his meager army pay, could provide none of this. The best he could manage was a modest gray stone house on a cobbled street constantly swept by wind and rain. The walled fortress town of Stettin, overlooking a bleak northern sea and dominated by a rigid military atmosphere, was not a place where gaiety, graciousness, or any of the social refinements could flourish. Garrison wives led dull lives; the lives of the wives of the town were duller still. And here, a lively young woman, fresh from the luxury and distractions of the court of Brunswick, was asked to exist on a tiny income with a puritanical husband who was devoted to soldiering, addicted to rigid economy, equipped to give orders but not to converse, and eager to see his wife succeed in the enterprise for which he had married her: the bearing of an heir. In this endeavor, Johanna did her best-she was a dutiful if unhappy wife. But always, underneath, she yearned to be free: free of her boring husband, free of their relative penury, free of the narrow, provincial world of Stettin. Always, she was certain that she deserved something better. And then, eighteen months after her marriage, she had a baby.
Johanna, at sixteen, was unprepared for the realities of motherhood. She had dealt with her pregnancy by wrapping herself in dreams: that her children would grow into extensions of herself and that their lives eventually would supply the broad avenue on which she would travel to achieve her own ambitions. In these dreams, she took it for granted that the baby she was carrying-her firstborn-would be a son, an heir for his father, but more important a handsome and exceptional boy whose brilliant career she would guide and ultimately share.
At 2:30 a.m. on April 21, 1729, in the chill, gray atmosphere of a Baltic dawn, Johanna's child was born. Alas, the little person was a daughter. Johanna and a more accepting Christian Augustus managed to give the baby a name, Sophia Augusta Fredericka, but from the beginning, Johanna could not find or express any maternal feeling. She did not nurse or caress her little daughter; she spent no time watching over her cradle or holding her; instead, abruptly, she handed the child over to servants and wet nurses.
One explanation may be that the process of childbirth nearly cost Johanna her life; for nineteen weeks after Sophia was born, the adolescent mother remained confined to her bed. A second is that Johanna was still very young and her own bright ambitions in life were far from fulfilled. But the stark, underlying reason was that her child was a girl, not a boy. Ironically, although she could not know it then, the birth of this daughter was the crowning achievement of Johanna's life. Had the baby been the son she so passionately desired, and had he lived to adulthood, he would have succeeded his father as Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst. Then the history of Russia would have been different and the small niche in history that Johanna Elizabeth earned for herself never would have existed.
Eighteen months after the birth of her first child, Johanna gave birth to the son upon whom she had set her heart. Her fondness for this second infant, Wilhelm Christian, became all the more intense when she realized that something about the child was seriously wrong. The boy, who appeared to suffer from rickets, became her obsession; she petted him, spoiled him, and scarcely let him out of her sight, lavishing on him all the affection she had denied her daughter. Sophia, already keenly aware that her own birth had been a disappointment to her mother, now observed the love with which Johanna surrounded her little brother. Gentle kisses, whispered endearments, tender caresses all were bestowed on the boy-while Sophia watched. It is, of course, common for the mother of a handicapped or chronically ill child to spend more time with that child, just as it is normal for other children in the family to resent this disproportionate attention. But Johanna's rejection of Sophia began before Wilhelm's birth, and then continued in aggravated form. The result of this maternal favoritism was a permanent wound. Most children, rejected or neglected in favor of a sibling, react more or less as Sophia did: to avoid more hurt, she sealed off her emotions; nothing was being given her and nothing was expected. Little Wilhelm, who simply accepted his mother's affection as normal, was quite innocent of any wrongdoing; even so, Sophia hated him. Forty years later, writing her Memoirs, her resentments still simmered:
It was told me that I was not very joyfully welcomed._._._._
My father thought I was an angel; my mother did not pay much attention to me. A year and a half later, she [Johanna] gave birth to a son whom she idolized. I was merely tolerated and often I was scolded with a violence and anger I did not deserve. I felt this without being perfectly clear why in my mind.
Thereafter, Wilhelm Christian goes unmentioned in her Memoirs until his death in 1742 at the age of twelve. Then, her brief account is unemotionally clinical:
He lived to be only twelve and died of spotted [scarlet] fever. It was not until after his death that they learned the cause of an illness which had compelled him to walk always with crutches and for which remedies had been constantly given him in vain and the most famous physicians in Germany consulted. They advised that he be sent to baths at Baden and Karlsbad, but he came home each time as lame as before he went away and his leg became smaller in proportion as he grew taller. After his death, his body was dissected and it was found that his hip was dislocated and must have been so from infancy._._._._At his death, my mother was inconsolable and the presence of the entire family was necessary to help her bear her grief.
This bitterness only hints at Sophia's enormous resentment against her mother. The harm done to this small daughter by Johanna's open display of preference marked Sophia's character profoundly. Her rejection as a child helps to explain her constant search as a woman for what she had missed. Even as Empress Catherine, at the height of her autocratic power, she wished not only to be admired for her extraordinary mind and obeyed as an empress, but also to find the elemental creature warmth that her brother-but not she-had been given by her mother.
Even minor eighteenth-century princely families maintained the trappings of rank. Children of the nobility were provided with nurses, governesses, tutors, instructors in music, dancing, riding, and religion to drill them in the protocol, manners, and beliefs of European courts. Etiquette was foremost; the little students practiced bowing and curtseying hundreds of times until perfection was automatic. Language lessons were paramount. Young princes and princesses had to be able to speak and write in French, the language of the European intelligentsia; in aristocratic German families, the German language was regarded as vulgar.
The influence of her governess, Elizabeth (Babet) Cardel, was critical at this time in Sophia's life. Babet, a Huguenot Frenchwoman who found Protestant Germany safer and more congenial than Catholic France, was entrusted with overseeing Sophia's education. Babet quickly understood that her pupil's frequent belligerence arose out of loneliness and a craving for encouragement and warmth. Babet provided these things. She also began to give Sophia what became her permanent love of the French language, with all its possibilities for logic, subtlety, wit, and liveliness in writing and conversation. Lessons began with Les Fables de La Fontaine; then they moved on to Corneille, Racine, and Molière. Too much of her education, Sophia decided later, had been sheer memorization: "Very early it was noticed that I had a good memory; therefore I was incessantly tormented with learning everything by heart. I still possess a German Bible in which all the verses I had to memorize are underlined with red ink."
Babet's approach to teaching was gentle compared to that of Pastor Wagner, a pedantic army chaplain chosen by Sophia's fervently Lutheran father to instruct his daughter in religion, geography, and history. Wagner's rigid methodology-memorize and repeat-made little headway against a pupil whom Babet had already described as an esprit gauche and who asked embarrassing questions: Why were great men of antiquity such as Marcus Aurelius eternally damned because they had not known of Christ's salvation and therefore could not have been redeemed? Wagner replied that this was God's will. What was the nature of the universe before the Creation? Wagner replied that it had been in a state of chaos. Sophia asked for a description of this original chaos; Wagner had none. The word "circumcision" used by Wagner naturally triggered the question: What does that mean? Wagner, appalled at the position in which he found himself, refused to answer. By elaborating on the horrors of the Last Judgment and the difficulty of being saved, Wagner so frightened his pupil that "every night at dusk I would go and cry by the window." The next day, however, she retaliated: How can the infinite goodness of God be reconciled with the terrors of the Last Judgment? Wagner, shouting that there were no rational answers to such questions, and that what he told her must be accepted on faith, threatened his pupil with his cane. Babet intervened. Later Sophia wrote, "I am convinced in my inmost soul that Herr Wagner was a blockhead." She added, "All my life I have had this inclination to yield only to gentleness and reason-and to resist all pressure."
Nothing, however, neither gentleness nor pressure, could assist her music teacher, Herr Roellig, in his task. "He always brought with him a creature who roared bass," she later wrote to her friend Friedrich Melchior Grimm. "He had him sing in my room. I listened to him and said to myself, 'he roars like a bull,' but Herr Roellig was beside himself with delight whenever this bass throat was in action." She never overcame her inability to appreciate harmony. "I long to hear and enjoy music," Sophia-Catherine wrote in her Memoirs, "but I try in vain. It is noise to my ears and that is all."
Babet Cardel's approach to teaching children lived on in the empress Catherine, and, years later, she poured out her gratitude: "She had a noble soul, a cultured mind, a heart of gold; she was patient, gentle, cheerful, just, consistent-in short the kind of governess one would wish every child to have." To Voltaire, she wrote that she was "the pupil of Mademoiselle Cardel." And in 1776, when she was forty- seven, she wrote to Grimm:
One cannot always know what children are thinking. Children are hard to understand, especially when careful training has accustomed them to obedience and experience has made them cautious in conversation with their teachers. Will you not draw from that the fine maxim that one should not scold children too much but should make them trustful, so that they will not conceal their stupidities from us?
The more independence Sophia displayed, the more she worried her mother. The girl was arrogant and rebellious, Johanna decided; these qualities must be stamped out before her daughter could be offered in marriage. As marriage was a minor princess's only destiny, Johanna was determined "to drive the devil of pride out of her." She repeatedly told her daughter that she was ugly as well as impertinent. Sophia was forbidden to speak unless spoken to or to express opinions to adults; she was made to kneel and kiss the hem of the skirt of all visiting women of rank. Sophia obeyed. Bereft of affection and approval, she nevertheless maintained a respectful attitude toward her mother, remained silent, submitted to Johanna's commands, and smothered her own opinions.
Table of Contents
Part I A German Princess 1
1 Sophia's Childhood 3
2 Summoned to Russia 13
3 Frederick II and the Journey to Russia 19
4 Empress Elizabeth 28
5 The Making of a Grand Duke 40
6 Meeting Elizabeth and Peter 49
7 Pneumonia 52
8 Intercepted Letters 57
9 Conversion and Betrothal 62
10 A Pilgrimage to Kiev and Transvestite Balls 66
11 Smallpox 72
12 Marriage 80
13 Johanna Goes Home 89
Part II A Painful Marriage 93
14 The Zhukova Affair 95
15 Peepholes 100
16 A Watchdog 106
17 "He Was Not a King" 111
18 In the Bedroom 114
19 A House Collapses 118
20 Summer Pleasures 121
21 Dismissals at Court 125
22 Moscow and the Country 129
23 Choglokov Makes an Enemy and Peter Survives a Plot 133
24 A Bath Before Easter and a Coachman's Whip 136
25 Oysters and an Actor 140
26 Reading, Dancing, and a Betrayal 144
Part III Seduction, Motherhood, and Confrontation 149
27 Saltykov 151
28 The Birth of the Heir 162
29 Retaliation 171
30 The English Ambassador 174
31 A Diplomatic Earthquake 179
32 Poniatowski 182
33 A Dead Rat, an Absent Lover, and a Risky Proposal 186
34 Catherine Challenges Brockdorff; She Gives a Party 192
35 Apraksin's Retreat 198
36 Catherine's Daughter 202
37 The Fall of Bestuzhev 205
38 A Gamble 209
39 Confrontation 215
40 A Ménage à Quatre 219
Part IV "The Time Has Come!" 225
41 Panin, Orlov, and Elizabeth's Death 227
42 The Brief Reign of Peter III 240
43 "Dura!" 251
44 "We Ourselves Know Not What We Did" 266
Part V Empress of Russia 279
45 Coronation 281
46 The Government and the Church 290
47 Serfdom 302
48 "Madame Orlov Could Never Be Empress of Russia" 313
49 The Death of Ivan VI 321
50 Catherine and the Enlightenment 330
51 The Nakaz 343
52 "All Free Estates of the Realm" 351
53 "The King We Have Made" 363
54 The First Partition of Poland and the First Turkish War 371
55 Doctors, Smallpox, and Plague 383
56 The Return of "Peter the Third" 392
57 The Last Days of the "Marquis de Pugachev" 403
Part VI Potemkin and Favoritism 411
58 Vasilchikov 413
59 Catherine and Potemkin: Passion 417
60 Potemkin Ascending 430
61 Catherine and Potemkin: Separation 435
62 New Relationships 442
63 Favorites 448
Part VII "My Name Is Catherine the Second" 461
64 Catherine, Paul, and Natalia 463
65 Paul, Maria, and the Succession 472
66 Potemkin: Builder and Diplomat 483
67 Crimean Journey and "Potemkin Villages" 489
68 The Second Turkish War and the Death of Potemkin 503
69 Art, Architecture, and the Bronze Horseman 519
70 "They Are Capable of Hanging Their King from a Lamppost!" 533
71 Dissent in Russia, Final Partition of Poland 548
72 Twilight 560
73 The Death of Catherine the Great 569
Selected Bibliography 577
A Reader's Guide 627
What People are Saying About This
“Gripping.”—The New York Times Book Review
“Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman has it all: jealous mothers, indulgent eccentrics, greedy social climbers, intrigue, infidelity, murder, political coups, sex, war and passion.”—Bookreporter
“Exhaustively researched and dramatically narrated.”—The Boston Globe
“[Robert K. Massie] brings great authority to this sweeping account of Catherine and her times. . . . a compelling read.”—The Washington Post
“Meticulously, dramatically rendered.”—O: The Oprah Magazine
“Reads like an epic Russian novel.”—San Antonio Express-News
“Will transport history lovers.”—People
“Massie makes Catherine’s story dramatic and immediate.”—The Kansas City Star
“Graceful and engrossing.”—Minneapolis Star Tribune
“A biography as captivating as its subject.”—MacLean’s
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
Catherine II, Empress of all the Russians, is known as one of the most powerful and hard working people in history. Many writers and historians have not always been sympathetic to her regarding her private life and have overlooked her achievements when ruling Russia. In contrast, Mr. Massie has written a stellar biography of Catherine that tells the reader what an accomplished and remarkable woman she became. Catherine was born in Stettin, in 1729. Stettin was then Germany and is now Poland. Her father was Prince Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst, a prince of a lesser-known family among the many principalities in Germany. Her mother, Princess Johanna of Holstein-Gottorp, was much younger than the Prince but was from a much higher-ranked family. She was given the name: Sophia Augusta Frederika of Anhalt-Zerbst. After Sophia was born, her mother became bored with the provincial life of Stettin, where her husband was a high ranking officer in the Prussian Army. As Johanna was related to many noble families in Germany, she took every opportunity to travel to the courts of Zerbst, Hamburg, Brunswick, Kiel and even Berlin. Many years before this, Johanna's brother Prince Karl August of Holstein-Gottorp had gone to Russia to marry the Princess Elizabeth Petrovna, daughter of Peter the Great. Before the wedding took place, the Prince died of small pox, leaving Elizabeth heart-broken. Elizabeth's nephew, son of her sister Anna, came to St. Petersburg when his parents died at Elizabeth's behest and was named as the heir to the throne of Russia as his mother and Aunt were daughters of Peter the Great of Russia. In November of the year 1741, Princess Elizabeth seized the throne with the help of the Imperial Guards, formally declaring her nephew Peter Ulrich of Holstein-Gottorp the heir to the throne. When she brought him to St. Petersburg she changed his name to Grand Duke Peter Fedorovich, the future Tzar Peter III. Peter was now 14 years old and it was time to look for a bride for him. Elizabeth remembered fondly the family of Karl August, whom she had been engaged to marry and invited the Princess Johanna, sister of her deceased fiance and the Princess Sophia to come to St. Petersberg to meet the heir to the throne and plan a wedding between the two young people. Sophia's name was changed to Catherine II and she went on to marry the future Peter III. She was treated badly by Peter and looked for companionship elsewhere with young men of the court. Her favorite companion was Gregory Potempkin by whom, it was said, she had her child Paul, who became heir to the throne. While she was Empress, she dealt with the many trials and tribulations of her country and looked after the welfare of the Russian people. She was praised by many and, as usual, condemned by some - and the author has remarked on all of her triumphs and failures. Her family, friends, enemies, lovers, etc. are all told about in abundance, including her mother, forever making plans that made her look good, and her husband who had nothing to do with her, ignoring her most of the time. This story is grand and glorious as are Robert Massie's previous works: (Nicholas and Alexandra and Peter the Great: His Life and World). The story is accurate, the characters very true to life, with much style and detail. Quill Says: For readers of history, this is a gem. A life story of an extraordinary woman which is very rich in color and drama.
Description: Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman by Robert K. Massie is the biography of Sophia Augusta, later known as Russian Empress Catherine the Great. It details Sophia's childhood, marriage, children, affairs, rise to power, famed coup, and eventual death. It is based on recorded historical documents and on Catherine's memoirs. Review: I have never read any other books by Robert K. Massie, but now I'm hooked. Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman is one of the most well-researched and compelling biographies that I have read to-date. The history contained in its 600+ pages is phenomenal, and once I started reading I didn't want to stop. Not only was Catherine the Great a strong-willed, clever, and courageous leader, but an amazing woman who was years ahead of her time. The book was laid out in typical biographical format, birth to death, but Massie's mastery of description and detail put the book in another class entirely. I felt like I was reading a gripping fictional account of the empress as she ruled and fought for equality and preservation of the Russian state, instead of a dry biography filled with dates and facts. I was very impressed with the book's pace as well as the depiction of many famous figures, particularly Diderot, Gregory Potemkin, and d'Alembert. I wish I would have had this book handy for my European history class because I truly feel like I have a better understanding of Russia as a country as well as the politics of the time period. I recommend this to history-lovers, history / literature students, and anyone who wants to experience the awe and majesty of Catherine the Great! Rating: On the Run (4.5/5) *** I received this ARC from Random House in exchange for an honest and unbiased review.
I enjoyed reading this book as well as Nicholas and Alexandra and would recommend it to anyone interested in Russian history.
I never thought I would be interested in the least on the subject of Russian history but I was enthralled with this book! I won't finish a book that doesn't hold my interest but when it was nearing it's close at over 500 pages I wanted to keep reading. Massie is an amazing writer! I read constantly and everything and this is by far the best book I have read in years!
I was unsure as to whether or not I should spend money on this book as I did not want to get bored and put it down after a chapter of two which is what I normally want to do when reading a biography. Not the case at all. In fact, I am enthralled not only by this amazing woman, Catherine the Great, who was much ahead of of time, but by Massey's wonderful writing skills. The book absolutely flows.
I haven't read Massie's other books about his obsession, Russia under the tsars, but if the others are anything like Catherine, then I have no doubt about why he's received a Pulitzer and why this book was so highly anticipated. Compulsively readable, Catherine takes a giant, intimidating subject and makes her accessible. From the first few pages, the reader sees into Catherine's most intimate thoughts through the invaluable resource of her childhood diary. The focus remains sympathetic even while the research provides an overall view of Catherine's time with verifiable facts. The reader will come away with a deep understanding of Catherine's problems and decisions. On a more personal note, as a woman reader I appreciated the way Catherine learned to wield power in a man's world and have a significant impact while maintaining a traditionally feminine personality, demonstrated by her appreciation of the arts and fine things and love of pets. This book is packed with enough relationship drama and court intrigue to be a novel, while the reader can impress the people he knows with his new knowledge. With Catherine, Massie has made a valuable contribution not only to women's and Russian history, but also to literature. It should be considered a must-read by any student of world culture.
History does not usually make it to the "couldn't put it down" level. This one does.
From the first page to the last, Catherine the Great captures the reader's attention with it's intimate portrayal of this enlightened, brilliant woman who was born at least a century too soon. Her intellectual quest to befriend and create relationships with the most erudite and philosophical thinkers of the time engendered thousands of letters and documents that have survived over the centuries and provided author Robert Massie with plenty of fodder for research, Massie achieved a phenomenal result, the development of a rich portrait of Catherine that is more than the usual historical text. The book is beautifully written and gives the reader a picture of Catherine, warts and all, that makes her seem all the more "great", a civilized woman ruling a savage nation.
This is a wonderful book . It is hard to beleive that this could have really happened,if it were fiction you would think this was too over the top. This book is well written and it holds you interest to the end, a wonderful way to learn history....
Pulitzer Prize winner, Robert K. Massie, adds Catherine the Great to his other biographies of Russian rulers (Peter the Great, Nicholas and Alexandra, and the Romanovs). This biography of German born Sophia Augusta, who later became ruler of Russia, creatively reveals how she became the only Russian female to be accorded the title of ¿The Great.¿ Mr. Massie¿s research is thorough and lends an authenticity to the biography through the inclusion of excerpts from Catherine the Great¿s memoirs and letters. The biography is comprehensive with much attention given to Catherine¿s early life. It was fascinating to ready how a shy and confused German duchess rose to the ranks of one of the most revered and powerful Russian rulers. Her many roles, dutiful wife, lover, intellectual, arts patron, protector of her people and regent are masterfully written. Massie masterfully interweaves Catherine, the person, with her many accomplishments while on the throne for 50 years. The book is engrossing, reading more like a novel than a biography. It is highly compelling and recommended. I thank Random House through Library Thing for graciously provided the review copy. Reviewed by Holly Weiss, author of Crestmont
Tremendous book. I have really enjoyed Massie's work. I am about to finish Nicholas and Alexandra which I believe I have enjoyed even more than this book. If you are at all interested in Russian history, you need to read this Author. I loved the book although I am not sure I really like Catherine the Great. She was a unique characer though and helped shaped the Romanov dynasty and Russa. Massie writes in a style that isn't the classic "slow" non-fiction bogged down in irrelevant details. He relies heavily on primary source material and weaves them into his work in a way that almost make it read like a historical fiction. I also found that much of the rather confusing politics of Europe started to become clearer as I realized just how intertwined these autocracies were. I highly recommend this author and this book.
Extremely entertaining making learning easy and fun!
Robert K Massie has done extensive research to bring to us the life and times of a truly remarkable woman! Very indept with details that enlighten the reader with perspective of the life and times of Catherine the Great. She was truly a remarkable woman who wanted nothing more but to bring humanity to a country that was beginning to enter the world stage. She endured much; accomplished much; sacrificed much to build Russia to her vision of what it would become. Mr. Massie tells her story with detail of every aspect of her life. The book reads well, and is extremely interesting throughout. I highly recommend it to anyone interested in reading the life story of someone truly remarkable living in remarkable times.
RK Massie has produced yet another great read. The book is well balanced, easy to read and thoroughly reasearched. I highly reading this book.
One review said too long. Another was upset about the 17 dollars. One reviewer said he was pedantic. A few bad reviews by a very few who quite honestly probably have nothing nice to say about any book. I bought the book at 35 dollars and it had been worth every Penny. I find it difficult to put down. I find myself drawn into this world and to Catherine. The author teaches the reader about a different time and culture without boring you. My only regret, not purchasing on my nook as the book is more difficult to read in bed! If you love history and one hell of write with vivid characters this book will notdisaapoint!
A reader learns about russian history through a mix of drama, military battles, sex, love, and more.
I trudged through this one, thinking it would be better as the pages rolled onwards. Wrong! Interesting story told in a pedantic and boring way. It's almost as if Mr. Massie felt he HAD to write another book about Russian monarchy for waht ever reason, but really didn't want to. Based on past works, this one is NOT a page turner, nor even worthy opf the time. Trivial fact after tivial fact, with no substance. Sorry, save your money.
Catherine the Great: A Portrait of a Woman By Robert K. Massie Having read multiple books by Robert Massie, my expectations were high for Catherine the Great: A Portrait of A Woman. And they were exceeded by this masterpiece! Born Sophia to an undistinguished prince and an immature princess, she started her life in bleak surroundings. Brought up to expect marriage, Sophia was introduced to many of her family’s cousins, uncles and far flung relatives. Upon meeting Peter (the future Peter III of Russia) as adolescents, her life was forever changed. At 14, Sophia was sent to Russia to marry the Archduke Peter and provide an heir to the throne. Now baptised as Catherine she endured years of loneliness and despair. She turned to books, friends and riding horses as a way to survive. Her husband was emotionally abused and physically scarred man. He was no companion or lover to help her through this trying time. Once Catherine the Second became Empress, she governed with the ideals of the Enlightenment philosophy she learned from her reading. She also corresponded with the great thinkers of the time. As Empress, she tried to work with the nobles to enact new laws and eliminate torture. She created universities, increased medical care and expanded artistic horizons. She strived for moral, political and judicial fairness, albeit governed by a benevolent dictator – her. She was human, and this biography of her does not gloss over her imperfections. This written picture of Catherine by Massie is complete portrait of this strong, yet vulnerable ruler. Catherine was a woman who had ambition. She wanted to be surrounded by laughter, humor and love. Most of all, she was a woman who strove to make Russia a better place for her countrymen. I was sad to finish this book, as I thoroughly enjoyed “getting to know” Catherine the Great.
A fantastic account of this woman's life! A must for anyone who loves history!!
Engrossing because Catherine was so fascinating. Strange, choppy chronology. Too much back and forth. Not so good as Henri Troyat's on the same subject.
Massie can always be counted on to provide an excellent book. This one is no exception. I would rate it lower than his other books on Russia, but against those works this is no knock. It is a humanising account of Catherine and is well worth reading.
If you read only one biography this year, make it Robert Massie¿s Catherine the Great. It grips the reader from the very first page to the very end and beyond. In 1744 Empress Elizabeth of Russia chooses Sophia daughter of Prussian Prince Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst to be the bride of her adopted son, Grand Duke Peter. Only 14 years old Sophia quickly grasps that her success depends on learning Russian and adopting the Orthodox faith. She converts to Orthodoxy and becomes Catherine a mere six months after arriving in Russia. She even says all of her required responses in Russian at the conversion ceremony. From this point on Catherine directs her whole attention to pleasing Peter and Elizabeth, not an easy combination. She quickly learns to trust very few people and to hold her own counsel. The relationship with Peter deteriorates. He ignores her, preferring the company of other women to hers. Pressured to produce an heir and lacking marital relations, she resorts to an affair. Her offspring are conceived through affairs with various men. Throughout her life she adapts to every new situation with courage, wit and determination. Massie makes Catherine come alive on the page. The pages seemed to turn by themselves. She never really finds the love she craves, but she becomes an empress in fact as well as in title. She works diligently every day and seeks to stay on top of events and currents in her adopted country. History points out her achievements and her mistakes, but after you finish this book, you will see her as the remarkable woman she is. Simply sensational!
loved it. massie writing makes it so engaging and interesting to read about this 17th century historic women leader.
Robert Massie has a solid reputation for writing gracefully and accurately about the Russian aristocracy, a subject normally freighted with mythology. His new book on Catherine the Great follows this tradition. He convincingly demonstrates how this isolated and neglected young princess from Germany was able to "work the system" and not only survive but end up in control of a huge empire and rule it intelligently. Massive survival skills were in play just getting into power, but then also great administrative ability to keep it in a culture of assassinations, coups, and uprisings. He cites Catherine's own explanation for ensuring obedience to absolute power: do your homework and then issue orders that are both popular and feasible. Not a bad way to hold on to power. It explains why she was able to build schools and hospitals. And it explains why she was unable to dismantle serfdom, which she detested, even in gradual stages. Abolition was not popular with her supporters and not feasible without destabilizing the country. Massie is quite sensible and cuts through a lot of nonsense that gets endlessly repeated: for example the so-called "Potemkin villages" were not cardboard fakes, but real working towns founded by Potemkin with Catherine's patronage...including cities still thriving like Odessa. (For this Massie has done a great service to Russian history in English.) Massie does not use Russian sources directly, which is too bad, so the work is filtered through intermediary translations. In Europe one would expect such a book to use archival sources in the original language as the late W. Bruce Lincoln was able to do. Massie relies heavily and probably too uncritically on translations of Catherine's own memoirs and picks up her self justifications. Sensibly, he kept the book in scale, and does not go off on too many tangents, even though he is very knowledgeable about many tempting Russian topics. I wish the editors had done a little more polishing. Although Massie's prose is gorgeous, every writer needs that extra editing to eliminate annoying repetitions. In all, it is a wonderful contribution to American understanding of a complicated part of the world. In the New York Times book review back page, Massie wrote movingly about how sad it was to finish the book because he enjoyed writing it so much. And I was a little sad to finish reading it, because it provided such effortless and rewarding pleasure.
I confess I am not particularly enamored by royalty, whether past or present. And so when it comes to reading about the royalty (fiction or nonfiction), I tend to steer clear unless a book comes highly recommended. Add to it the fact I am not a big biography fan. I have read really good ones and some that are not so good--okay, a couple that were downright awful. Catherine the Great: A Portrait of a Woman by Robert K. Massie falls into the really good category. Catherine the Great: A Portrait of a Woman was my book club's March reading selection. I probably would not have read it without their urging.Having spent nearly a decade researching Catherine and her life, Massie's book is well documented. He captures Catherine's voice in the pages, something I've found can be difficult to do when it comes to biographies.Catherine began as Sophia Augusta Fredericka, the daughter of a devout Lutheran general and governor and an ambitious and vain mother. She was precocious and intelligent. She loved to read, not to mention learn. Sophia was a girl after my own heart. I saw in the young woman a kindred spirit. She was someone I wish I could have known. Her family was not wealthy and her station relatively low, despite Sophia's princess status. As a result, her mother wanted Sophia to marry well and planned and schemed accordingly.Sophia's marriage to Peter of Holstein-Gottorp was not only a match sought by Sophia's mother, but also by both Frederick II of Prussia and Empress Elizabeth of Russia for political reasons. It also served Sophia's purposes. It was a way out of her mother's household. Sophia, renamed Catherine by Elizabeth upon her conversion to Eastern Orthodoxy and marriage to Peter III, was to become one of the most well known and thought of leaders in Russian history.Catherine was extremely bright and knew how to get what she wanted. She was ambitious, but her ambition for power was marked by her desire to better Russia--not just her own station. She was a relatively benevolent leader, interested in the arts and culture. She desired to better Russian society, including ending serfdom, something she was unable to do due to politics and various circumstances. She was a strong believer in the Enlightenment and tried to apply many of its teachings in her leadership of Russia, sometimes with success and often without. Catherine was a hands on leader, taking part in local government as well as issues abroad. She helped make Russia a country to contend with. She truly was ahead of her time.Catherine's relationship with her husband was an interesting one. If sources are to be believed, she and he never consummated their marriage. Peter III was an interesting man. Peculiar is the word that comes to mind. I was fascinated by Empress Elizabeth. I can see why Catherine was enamored by her initially. She could be very maternal on one hand and very cruel on the other. It broke my heart when she took Catherine's children from her and would not allow her to hold or see them right after they were born. And then to send away anyone either Peter or Catherine became close to . . . I also was appalled by her treatment of Ivan, the boy who could threaten her hold on the thrown. He had been an innocent child when locked away and was never allowed to have even a smidgeon of a normal life.Over her lifetime, Catherine took on many lovers and, where she was skilled in her role as empress, she was less successful in her personal relationships. Even as a leader, Catherine did not use the best judgement, sometimes giving in to vanity or fear. You would have thought she'd learn from the way she had been treated to not make the same mistakes, and yet she did. But then, Catherine was only human and we are all guilty of that.The biography covers a lot of ground and explores nearly every facet of Catherine's life, including offering in depth descriptions of the influential people in her life. I was never bored, although I did favor the first half of the book