CCD Arrays, Cameras, and Displays

CCD Arrays, Cameras, and Displays

by Gerald C. Holst

Hardcover

$78.00 View All Available Formats & Editions

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780964000049
Publisher: J C D Publishing
Publication date: 03/28/1998
Pages: 378
Product dimensions: 6.32(w) x 8.98(h) x 1.05(d)

Table of Contents

1.Introduction1
1.1.Solid State Detectors2
1.2.Imaging System Applications3
1.2.1.General Imagery6
1.2.2.Machine Vision7
1.2.3.Scientific Applications8
1.2.4.Military Applications8
1.3.Configurations9
1.4.Image Quality12
1.5.Pixels, Datels, Disels, and Resels14
1.6.References17
2.Radiometry and Photometry18
2.1.Radiative Transfer19
2.2.Planck's Blackbody Law21
2.3.Photometry23
2.3.1.Units25
2.3.2.Typical Illumination Levels27
2.4.Sources29
2.4.1.Calibration Sources29
2.4.2.Real Sources30
2.5.Camera Formula33
2.6.Normalization37
2.7.Normalization Issues39
2.8.References44
3.Solid State Arrays45
3.1.Photodetection46
3.1.1.Photogate47
3.1.2.Photodiode47
3.2.CCD Array Operation47
3.3.CCD Array Architecture58
3.3.1.Linear Arrays58
3.3.2.Full Frame Arrays59
3.3.3.Frame Transfer61
3.3.4.Interline Transfer63
3.3.5.Progressive Scan68
3.3.6.Time Delay and Integration70
3.4.Charge Transfer Efficiency74
3.5.Charge Conversion (Output Structure)78
3.6.Dark Current79
3.7.Dark Pixels83
3.8.Antibloom Drain85
3.9.CID89
3.10.CMOS91
3.11.Physical Parameters93
3.11.1.Microlenses93
3.11.2.Color Filter Arrays94
3.11.3.Number of Detectors97
3.11.4.Video Chip Size98
3.12.References100
4.Array Performance102
4.1.Signal103
4.1.1.Spectral Response104
4.1.2.Responsivity111
4.1.3.Minimum Signal119
4.1.4.Maximum Signal120
4.1.5.Dynamic Range121
4.2.Noise123
4.2.1.Shot Noise127
4.2.2.Reset Noise127
4.2.3.On-chip Amplifier Noise128
4.2.4.Off-chip amplifier Noise130
4.2.5.Quantization Noise130
4.2.6.Pattern Noise131
4.2.7.Photon Transfer133
4.3.Array Signal-to-Noise Ratio139
4.4.Correlated Double Sampling141
4.5.Frame Rates142
4.6.Defects143
4.7.References144
5.Cameras146
5.1.Camera Operation147
5.2.Video Formats149
5.2.1.Video Timing151
5.2.2.Broadcast/Non-broadcast Design155
5.2.3.Component/Composite Signals156
5.2.4.IRE Units157
5.2.5.Digital Television159
5.2.6.HDTV/ATS160
5.3.Consumer/Broadcast Cameras163
5.3.1.The Knee164
5.3.2.Color Correction165
5.3.3.Gamma Compensation169
5.3.4.Aperture Correction172
5.4.Industrial/Scientific Cameras172
5.4.1.Analog-to-Digital Converters174
5.4.2.Intensified Solid State Cameras176
5.5.References179
6.Camera Performance182
6.1.Nomenclature183
6.2.Camera Metrics185
6.2.1.Camera SNR186
6.2.2.Camera Dynamic Range187
6.2.3.Maximum Signal189
6.2.4.Minimum Signal189
6.3.Intensified CCD Camera195
6.3.1.ICCD Signal196
6.3.2.ICCD Noise197
6.3.3.ICCD SNR198
6.4.References200
7.Crt-Based Displays201
7.1.The Observer203
7.2.CRT Overview205
7.2.1.Monochrome Displays207
7.2.2.Color Displays207
7.2.3.HDTV210
7.3.Spot Size210
7.4.Disels213
7.5.Resolution218
7.5.1.Vertical Resolution219
7.5.2.Theoretical Horizontal Resolution219
7.5.3.TV Limiting Resolution220
7.5.4.MTF221
7.6.Addressability222
7.7.Shades of Gray227
7.8.Character Recognition227
7.9.Contrast228
7.10.References230
8.Sampling Theory231
8.1.Sampling Theorem234
8.2.Aliasing236
8.3.The Detector as a Sampler239
8.3.1.Detector MTF239
8.3.2.Detector Array Nyquist Frequency242
8.3.3.Image Distortion245
8.4.Aliasing in Frame Grabbers and Displays249
8.5.References251
9.Linear System Theory252
9.1.Linear System Theory253
9.1.1.Time-varying Signals254
9.1.2.Spatially Varying Signals256
9.2.Electronic Imaging System257
9.3.MTF and PTF Interpretation259
9.4.Superposition Applied to Optical Systems261
9.5.Contrast Transfer Function263
9.6.References266
10.System MTF267
10.1.Frequency Domains269
10.2.Optics MTF274
10.3.Detectors275
10.3.1.Diffusion MTF276
10.3.2.Charge Transfer Efficiency279
10.3.3.TDI280
10.3.4.Optical Anti-alias Filter283
10.4.Optics-detector Subsystem286
10.5.Motion292
10.5.1.Linear Motion292
10.5.2.Random Motion (jitter)294
10.6.Electronic Filters295
10.6.1.Anti-alias Analog Filter295
10.6.2.Digital Filters296
10.6.3.Sample-and-hold299
10.6.4.Post-reconstruction Filter300
10.6.5.Boost302
10.7.CRT-based Display303
10.8.Human Visual Response306
10.9.Intensified CCD310
10.10.Sampling Effects311
10.11.References312
11.Image Quality315
11.1.Resolution Metrics317
11.2.Optical Resolution Metrics320
11.3.Detector Resolution321
11.4.Electrical Resolution Metrics323
11.5.MTF-based Resolution324
11.5.1.Limiting Resolution324
11.5.2.MTF/TM Resolution325
11.5.3.Shade's Equivalent Resolution325
11.6.System Resolution Examples328
11.7.MTFA331
11.8.Subjective Quality Factor332
11.9.Square-root Integral334
11.10.References336
12.Minimum Resolvable Contrast338
12.1.The Observer339
12.1.1.Perceived Signal-to-noise Ratio340
12.1.2.Perceived Resolution344
12.1.3.The HVS "Filter"345
12.2.Three-dimensional Noise Model346
12.3.The MRC Model351
12.4.SNR[subscript th] and t[subscript e]355
12.5.Two-dimensional MRC358
12.6.Range Predictions359
12.6.1.Contrast Transmittance359
12.6.2.Johnson Criteria362
12.6.3.Target Transfer Probability Function363
12.6.4.Range Prediction Methodology365
12.6.5.Sampling Effects368
12.7.References369
Appendix371
A.1.Effective Focal Length371
A.2.f-Number371
A.3.Reference372
Index373

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