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Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle / Edition 3

Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle / Edition 3

by Gary Matthews


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780632043545
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 06/28/1998
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 272
Product dimensions: 7.34(w) x 9.15(h) x 0.56(d)

Table of Contents

Part I: Origin of Electrical Membrane Potential.

1. Introduction to Electrical Signaling in the NervousSystem.

The Patellar Reflex as a Model for Neural Function.

The Cellular Organization of Neurons.

Electrical Signals in Neurons.

Transmission between Neurons.

2. Composition of Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids.

Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids.

The Structure of the Plasma Membrane.


3. Maintenance of Cell Volume.

Molarity, Molality, and Diffusion of Water.

Osmotic Balance and Cell Volume.

Answers to the Problem of Osmotic Balance.


Time-Course of Volume Changes.


4. Membrane Potential: Ionic Equilibrium.

Diffusion Potential.

Equilibrium Potential.

The Nernst Equation.

The Principle of Electrical Neutrality.

The Cell Membrane as an Electrical Capacitor.

Incorporating Osmotic Balance.

Donnan Equilibrium.

A Model Cell That Looks Like a Real Animal Cell.

The Sodium Pump.


5. Membrane Potential: Ionic Steady State.

Equilibrium Potentials for Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride.

Ion Channels in the Plasma Membrane.

Membrane Potential and Ionic Permeability.

The Goldman Equation.

Ionic Steady State.

The Chloride Pump.

Electrical Current and the Movement of Ions AcrossMembranes.

Factors Affecting Ion Current Across a Cell Membrane.

Membrane Permeability vs. Membrane Conductance.

Behavior of Single Ion Channels.


Part II: Cellular Physiology of Nerve Cells.

6. Generation of Nerve Action Potential.

The Action Potential.

Ionic Permeability and Membrane Potential.

Measuring the Long-Distance Signal in Neurons.

Characteristics of the Action Potential.

Initiation and Propagation of Action Potentials.

Changes in Relative Sodium Permeability During an ActionPotential.

Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels of the Neuron Membrane.


The Refractory Period.

Propagation of an Action Potential Along a Nerve Fiber.

Factors Affecting the Speed of Action Potential Propagation.

Molecular Properties of the Voltage-Sensitive SodiumChannel.

Molecular Properties of Voltage-Dependent PotassiumChannels.

Calcium-Dependent Action Potentials.


7. The Action Potential: Voltage Clamp Experiments.

The Voltage Clamp.

Measuring Changes in Membrane Ionic Conductance Using theVoltage Clamp.

The Squid Giant Axon.

Ionic Currents Across an Axon Membrane Under Voltage Clamp.

The Gated Ion Channel Model.

Membrane Potential and Peak Ionic Conductance.

Kinetics of the Change in Ionic Conductance Following a StepDepolarization.

Sodium Inactivation.

The Temporal Behavior of Sodium and Potassium Conductance.

Gating Currents.


8. Synaptic Transmission at the Neuromuscular Junction.

Chemical and Electrical Synapses.

The Neuromuscular Junction as a Model Chemical Synapse.

Transmission at a Chemical Synapse.

Presynaptic Action Potential and Acetylcholine Release.

Effect of ACh on the Muscle Cell.

Neurotransmitter Release.

The Vesicle Hypothesis of Quantal Transmitter Release.

Mechanism of Vesicle Fusion.

Recycling of Vesicle Membrane.

Inactivation of Released Acetylcholine.

Recording the Electrical Current Flowing Through a SingleAcetylcholine-Activated Ion Channel.

Molecular Properties of the Acetylcholine-Activated Channel.


9. Synaptic Transmission in the Central Nervous System.

Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses.

Excitatory Synaptic Transmission Between Neurons.

Temporal and Spatial Summation of Synaptic Potentials.

Some Possible Excitatory Neurotransmitters.

Conductance-Decrease E.P.S.P.'s.

Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission.

The Synapse Between Sensory Neurons and Antagonist Neurons inthe Patellar Reflex.

Characteristics of Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission.

Mechanism of Inhibition in the Postsynaptic Membrane.

Some Possible Inhibitory Neurotransmitters.

The Family of Neurotransmitter-Gated Ion Channels.

Neuronal Integration.

Indirect Actions of Neurotransmitters.

Presynaptic Inhibition and Factilitation.

Synaptic Plasticity.

Short-Term Changes in Synaptic Strength.

Long-Term Changes in Synaptic Strength.


Part III: Cellular Physiology of Muscle Cells.

10. Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Skeletal Muscle.

The Three Types of Muscle.

Structure of Skeletal Muscle.

Changes in Striation Pattern on Contraction.

Molecular Composition of Filaments.

Interaction Between Myosin and Actin.

Regulation of Contraction.

The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.

The Transverse Tubule System.


11. Neural Control of Muscle Contraction.

The Motor Unit.

The Mechanics of Contraction.

The Relationship Between Isometric Tension and MuscleLength.

Control of Muscle Tension by the Nervous System.

Recruitment of Motor Neurons.

Fast and Slow Muscle Fibers.

Temporal Summation of Contractions Within a Single MotorUnit.

Asynchronous Activation of Motor Units During MaintainedContraction.


12. Cardiac Muscle: The Autonomic Nervous System.

Autonomic Control of the Heart.

The Pattern of Cardiac Contraction.

Coordination of Contraction Across Cardiac Muscle Fibers.

Generation of Rhythmic Contractions.

The Cardiac Action Potential.

The Pacemaker Potential.

Actions of Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine on Cardiac MuscleCells.


Appendix A: Derivation of the Nernst Equation.

Appendix B: Derivation of the Goldman Equation.

Appendix C: Electrical Properties of Cells.

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