ISBN-10:
0130832839
ISBN-13:
9780130832832
Pub. Date:
07/26/2000
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth / Edition 7

Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth / Edition 7

by James M. Kauffman

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780130832832
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 07/26/2000
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 612
Product dimensions: 7.76(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.59(d)

About the Author

James M. Kauffman is Professor Emeritus of education at the University of Virginia, where he was a faculty member for more than 30 years. He is also a former teacher of special education for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. He is the author, co-author, and co-editor of many publications in special education.

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PREFACE:

PREFACE

This book, like its earlier editions, serves primarily as an introductory text in special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (those called "emotionally disturbed' in federal regulations). Because emotional and behavioral disorders are commonly observed in children and youth in all special education categories, the book will also be of value in courses dealing with the characteristics of mental retardation, learning disabilities, or students in cross-categorical special education. Students in school psychology, educational psychology, or abnormal child psychology may also find the book useful.

Several comments are necessary to clarify my intent in writing this book. First, developmental processes have been an important concern of mine in trying to understand the problem of emotional and behavioral disorders. I have tried to integrate the most relevant parts of the vast and scattered literature on child development and show their relevance to understanding the children and youth who have these disorders. In struggling with this task, I have attempted not only to summarize what is known about why disorders occur but also to suggest how emotional and behavioral development can be influenced for the better, particularly by educators. Second, in concentrating primarily on research and theory grounded in reliable empirical data, I have revealed my bias toward social learning principles. I believe that when we examine the literature with a willingness to be swayed by empirical evidence rather than devoting ourselves to humanistic ideology alone, then a social learning bias is understandable. Third, this bookis not, by any stretch of the imagination, a comprehensive treatment of the subject. An introductory book must leave much unsaid and many loose ends that need tying. Unquestionably, the easiest thing about writing this book was to let it fall short of saying everything, with the hope that readers will pursue the information in the works cited in the references.

I have tried to address the interests and concerns of teachers and of students preparing to become teachers. Consequently, I have described many interventions, particularly in the chapters in Part 4. However, I emphasize that the descriptions are cursory; this text does not provide the details of educational methods and behavioral interventions that are necessary for competent implementation by teachers. This is not a methods or how-to-do-it book.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

Users of previous editions will notice significant updates and revisions in the seventh edition. I have updated citations and information on many topics, although I have retained many citations of earlier research because newer findings have not refuted them. Preface

As the seventh edition went to press, the newest version of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was IDEA 1997. This version is embedded in all discussions having to do with special education law. Thus, I have added information regarding functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral intervention plans. The IEPs included in Chapter 6 are examples taken from a book written with IDEA 1997 as a reference. Because I have offered more complete information on IEPs in Chapter 6, I have deleted the IEP excerpts formerly included in Chapters 11 through 17.

Many of the "Personal Reflections" in Part 4, "Facets of Disordered Behavior," are new, as are several in other sections of the book. In addition, I have added a new feature in each chapter in Part 4: an interview with the student about whom the teacher has written. These interviews bring the students to life in a way that is not possible through mere description. The names of the students in these interviews are fictitious, but the questions and responses are not. I have deleted the brief case studies and IEP excerpts in Chapters 11 through 17 of the previous edition to make way for the interviews, which I think readers will find more interesting and useful. The deleted case studies are now found in the instructor's manual.

Readers may also note that Chapter 14 was revised by Frederick J. Brigham. In 1999 Rick and I were appointed co-editors of Behavioral Disorders, the journal of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. He is a trusted friend and colleague with experience as a teacher of adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders as well as a special education administrator.

ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

The organization of this book differs noticeably from that of most other texts. The emphasis is on clear description of emotional and behavioral disorders and interpretation of research on the factors implicated in their development. Unlike other texts in this discipline, this book is not organized around theoretical models or psychiatric classifications but around basic concepts: the nature, extent, and history of the problem and conceptual approaches to it; assessment of the problem; major causal factors; the many facets of disordered emotions and behavior; and a personal statement about teaching pupils with these disorders. I hope this organization encourages students to become critical thinkers and problem solvers.

Part 1 introduces major concepts and historical antecedents of contemporary special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. Chapter 1 begins with a series of vignettes to orient the reader to disorders and the ways in which they disturb others. The vignettes are followed by discussion of the problems in defining these disorders, especially for educational purposes. In Chapter 2, prevalence is discussed from a conceptual, problem-solving perspective rather than as an exercise in remembering facts and figures. Chapter 3 traces the development of the field—how it grew out of the disciplines of psychology, psychiatry, and public education—and summarizes major current trends. Chapter 4 abstracts the major conceptual models that guide thinking about educating students with emotional and behavioral disorders and provides a sketch of the conceptual model underlying the orientation of the book.

Part 2 deals with procedures and problems in assessing emotional and behavioral disorders. Chapter 5 reviews not only the problems in screening student populations but also the difficulties encountered in classifying disorders. Chapter 6 takes up evaluation for eligibility and intervention, with attention to social validation and the IEP.

Part 3 examines the origins of disordered behavior, with attention to the implications of causal factors for special educators. Chapter 7 discusses biological factors, Chapter 8 the role of the family, Chapter 9 the influence of the school, and Chapter 10 cultural factors. Each chapter integrates current research findings that may help us understand why children and youth acquire emotional or behavioral disorders and what preventive actions might be taken.

Types of disorders are discussed in Part 4. The chapters are organized around major behavioral dimensions derived from factor analyses of behavioral ratings by teachers and parents. Although no categorical scheme produces unambiguous groupings of all disorders, the chapters are devoted to the behavioral dimensions emerging most consistently from empirical research. Each chapter emphasizes issues germane to special education, including definition, assessment, and intervention.

Part 5 contains only one chapter—my interpretation and application of all of the preceding material to teaching practices. This is a personal statement intended only to suggest some basic assumptions about teaching pupils who exhibit seriously troublesome behavior.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Any shortcomings of this book are my responsibility alone, but its worth has been enhanced substantially by others who have assisted me in a variety of ways. I thank the reviewers of the sixth edition, who offered advance suggestions for the seventh edition. The perceptive suggestions of Lisa Bloom, Western Carolina University; Marion S. Boss, the University of Toledo; Elizabeth Heins, Stetson University; Michael Kallan, Fort Hays State University; and Martha J. Meyer, Butler University, resulted in substantial improvements in my work. Many other users of the book, both students and instructors, have given me helpful feedback over the years; and I encourage those who are willing to share their comments on the book to write or call me with their suggestions. I am also grateful to the contributors of the "Personal Reflections" features for their willingness to share their knowledge and views on important questions. Kristin Lundgren helped me search and compile the current literature. Finally, I offer special thanks to Teresa Zutter for supplying several of the case studies at the ends of chapters and to Frederick J. Brigham, JeanneMarie Bantz, Jennifer Jakubecy, Patricia M. Crawford, and Michele M. Brigham for preparing the instructor's manual.

J. M. K.
Charlottesville, VA

Table of Contents

PART I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS HISTORY.

1. Definition: The Nature of the Problem.
2. Prevalence: The Extent of the Problem.
3. The History of the Problem: Development of the Field.
4. Conceptual Models: Approaches to the Problem.

PART II. ASSESSMENT.

5. Screening and Classification.
6. Evaluation for Instruction.

PART III. CAUSAL FACTORS.

7. Biological Factors.
8. Family Factors.
9. School Factors.
10. Cultural Factors.

PART IV. FACETS OF DISORDERED BEHAVIOR.

11. Attention and Activity Disorders.
12. Conduct Disorder: Overt Aggression.
13. Conduct Disorder: Covert Antisocial Behavior.
14. Problem Behaviors of Adolescence: Delinquency, Substance Abuse, and Early Sexual Activity.
15. Anxiety and Related Disorders.
16. Depression and Suicidal Behavior.
17. Schizophrenia and Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

PART V. IMPLICATIONS: A BEGINNING POINT.

18. A Personal Statement.
Glossary.
References.
Author Index.
Subject Index.

Preface

PREFACE

This book, like its earlier editions, serves primarily as an introductory text in special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (those called "emotionally disturbed' in federal regulations). Because emotional and behavioral disorders are commonly observed in children and youth in all special education categories, the book will also be of value in courses dealing with the characteristics of mental retardation, learning disabilities, or students in cross-categorical special education. Students in school psychology, educational psychology, or abnormal child psychology may also find the book useful.

Several comments are necessary to clarify my intent in writing this book. First, developmental processes have been an important concern of mine in trying to understand the problem of emotional and behavioral disorders. I have tried to integrate the most relevant parts of the vast and scattered literature on child development and show their relevance to understanding the children and youth who have these disorders. In struggling with this task, I have attempted not only to summarize what is known about why disorders occur but also to suggest how emotional and behavioral development can be influenced for the better, particularly by educators. Second, in concentrating primarily on research and theory grounded in reliable empirical data, I have revealed my bias toward social learning principles. I believe that when we examine the literature with a willingness to be swayed by empirical evidence rather than devoting ourselves to humanistic ideology alone, then a social learning bias is understandable. Third, this book is not,by any stretch of the imagination, a comprehensive treatment of the subject. An introductory book must leave much unsaid and many loose ends that need tying. Unquestionably, the easiest thing about writing this book was to let it fall short of saying everything, with the hope that readers will pursue the information in the works cited in the references.

I have tried to address the interests and concerns of teachers and of students preparing to become teachers. Consequently, I have described many interventions, particularly in the chapters in Part 4. However, I emphasize that the descriptions are cursory; this text does not provide the details of educational methods and behavioral interventions that are necessary for competent implementation by teachers. This is not a methods or how-to-do-it book.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

Users of previous editions will notice significant updates and revisions in the seventh edition. I have updated citations and information on many topics, although I have retained many citations of earlier research because newer findings have not refuted them. Preface

As the seventh edition went to press, the newest version of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was IDEA 1997. This version is embedded in all discussions having to do with special education law. Thus, I have added information regarding functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral intervention plans. The IEPs included in Chapter 6 are examples taken from a book written with IDEA 1997 as a reference. Because I have offered more complete information on IEPs in Chapter 6, I have deleted the IEP excerpts formerly included in Chapters 11 through 17.

Many of the "Personal Reflections" in Part 4, "Facets of Disordered Behavior," are new, as are several in other sections of the book. In addition, I have added a new feature in each chapter in Part 4: an interview with the student about whom the teacher has written. These interviews bring the students to life in a way that is not possible through mere description. The names of the students in these interviews are fictitious, but the questions and responses are not. I have deleted the brief case studies and IEP excerpts in Chapters 11 through 17 of the previous edition to make way for the interviews, which I think readers will find more interesting and useful. The deleted case studies are now found in the instructor's manual.

Readers may also note that Chapter 14 was revised by Frederick J. Brigham. In 1999 Rick and I were appointed co-editors of Behavioral Disorders, the journal of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. He is a trusted friend and colleague with experience as a teacher of adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders as well as a special education administrator.

ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

The organization of this book differs noticeably from that of most other texts. The emphasis is on clear description of emotional and behavioral disorders and interpretation of research on the factors implicated in their development. Unlike other texts in this discipline, this book is not organized around theoretical models or psychiatric classifications but around basic concepts: the nature, extent, and history of the problem and conceptual approaches to it; assessment of the problem; major causal factors; the many facets of disordered emotions and behavior; and a personal statement about teaching pupils with these disorders. I hope this organization encourages students to become critical thinkers and problem solvers.

Part 1 introduces major concepts and historical antecedents of contemporary special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. Chapter 1 begins with a series of vignettes to orient the reader to disorders and the ways in which they disturb others. The vignettes are followed by discussion of the problems in defining these disorders, especially for educational purposes. In Chapter 2, prevalence is discussed from a conceptual, problem-solving perspective rather than as an exercise in remembering facts and figures. Chapter 3 traces the development of the field—how it grew out of the disciplines of psychology, psychiatry, and public education—and summarizes major current trends. Chapter 4 abstracts the major conceptual models that guide thinking about educating students with emotional and behavioral disorders and provides a sketch of the conceptual model underlying the orientation of the book.

Part 2 deals with procedures and problems in assessing emotional and behavioral disorders. Chapter 5 reviews not only the problems in screening student populations but also the difficulties encountered in classifying disorders. Chapter 6 takes up evaluation for eligibility and intervention, with attention to social validation and the IEP.

Part 3 examines the origins of disordered behavior, with attention to the implications of causal factors for special educators. Chapter 7 discusses biological factors, Chapter 8 the role of the family, Chapter 9 the influence of the school, and Chapter 10 cultural factors. Each chapter integrates current research findings that may help us understand why children and youth acquire emotional or behavioral disorders and what preventive actions might be taken.

Types of disorders are discussed in Part 4. The chapters are organized around major behavioral dimensions derived from factor analyses of behavioral ratings by teachers and parents. Although no categorical scheme produces unambiguous groupings of all disorders, the chapters are devoted to the behavioral dimensions emerging most consistently from empirical research. Each chapter emphasizes issues germane to special education, including definition, assessment, and intervention.

Part 5 contains only one chapter—my interpretation and application of all of the preceding material to teaching practices. This is a personal statement intended only to suggest some basic assumptions about teaching pupils who exhibit seriously troublesome behavior.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Any shortcomings of this book are my responsibility alone, but its worth has been enhanced substantially by others who have assisted me in a variety of ways. I thank the reviewers of the sixth edition, who offered advance suggestions for the seventh edition. The perceptive suggestions of Lisa Bloom, Western Carolina University; Marion S. Boss, the University of Toledo; Elizabeth Heins, Stetson University; Michael Kallan, Fort Hays State University; and Martha J. Meyer, Butler University, resulted in substantial improvements in my work. Many other users of the book, both students and instructors, have given me helpful feedback over the years; and I encourage those who are willing to share their comments on the book to write or call me with their suggestions. I am also grateful to the contributors of the "Personal Reflections" features for their willingness to share their knowledge and views on important questions. Kristin Lundgren helped me search and compile the current literature. Finally, I offer special thanks to Teresa Zutter for supplying several of the case studies at the ends of chapters and to Frederick J. Brigham, JeanneMarie Bantz, Jennifer Jakubecy, Patricia M. Crawford, and Michele M. Brigham for preparing the instructor's manual.

J. M. K.
Charlottesville, VA

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