Chemical Mutagens: Principles and Methods for Their Detection: Volume 2

Chemical Mutagens: Principles and Methods for Their Detection: Volume 2

by Alexander Hollaender (Editor)

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1971)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461589716
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 09/10/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1971
Pages: 342
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

of Volume 2.- 11 Measurement of Recessive Lethal Damage Over the Entire Genome and at Two Specific Loci in the ad-3 Region of a Two-Component Heterokaryon of Neurospora Crassa.- I. Introduction.- A. Use of a Two-Component Heterokaryon to Measure the Genetic Effects of Mutagenic Treatment.- B. The Spectrum of Recessive Lethal Mutations Detectable with a Two-Component Heterokaryon.- C. Characteristics of Strain 12-A Two-Component Heterokary on.- D. Assaying for Mutagenicity of Chemicals in Screening Programs.- II. Measurement of the Genetic Effects of Mutagenic Treatment.- A. General Methods of Treatment.- B. Tests for Mutagenicity on Growing Cultures.- C. Tests for Mutagenicity on Nongrowing Conidia.- D. Treatment with Mutagens.- E. Assaying for the Genetic Effects of Mutagenic Treatment.- F. Evaluation of Genetic Assays.- III. Characterization of Presumptive ad-3 Mutants.- A. Establishing a Silica Gel Stock Culture of Each Adenine-Requiring Strain.- B. Genetic Tests.- IV. Media and Chemical Solutions.- A. Media.- B. Chemical Solutions.- V. References.- 12 Aspergillus.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Genetic Analysis.- A. The Vegetative Cycle.- B. The Sexual Cycle.- C. The Parasexual Cycle.- III. Mutation.- A. Gene Mutations.- B. Mutations of Quantity and Arrangement.- IV. Conclusions.- V. References.- 13 Higher Plants.- I. Introduction.- II. Test Systems.- A. Barley.- B. Pea.- C. Wheat and Other Polyploids.- D. Arabidopsis thaliana.- III. Compounds Tested for Mutagenic Activity by Treatment of Seeds.- A. Classification of Mutagens.- B. Quantitative Aspects.- C. Alkylating Agents.- D. Potential Unspecific Mutagens Active by Mechanisms Other Than Alkylation.- E. Agents Causing Specific Changes in DNA Bases.- IV. Special Techniques That Have a Higher Resolving Power.- A. Pollen Characters.- B. Somatic Mutant Sectors.- V. General Evaluation.- VI. Acknowledgments.- VII. References.- 14 Procedures for Culturing Diploid Cells and Preparation of Meiotic Chromosomes from Dwarf Species of Hamsters.- I. Introduction.- II. Background Information.- A. Brief Historical Account.- B. Breeding and Management.- C. General Characteristics of Animals and Cultured Cells.- D. Cytological Preparations.- E. Spontaneous Tumors.- III. Handling the Diploid Cell.- A. Cloning Operations.- B. Difficulties When Employing Single Type Serum Supplemented Media.- C. Cell Culture Media for Routine Propagation of Different Diploid Cell Types.- D. Combined Sera Supplements.- E. Phenotypic Features of Diploid Cells.- F. Initiation of Cell Cultures from Organs and Solid (Primary) Tumors.- G. Derivation of Diploid Cell Lines from Peritoneal Exudate.- H. Roller-Flask Cultures of Diploid Cell Lines.- IV. Spermatogonial and Meiotic Chromosome Preparations.- A. Partial Orchidectomy.- B. Hypotonic Treatment and Fixation.- C. Aceto-Carmine Squash Preparations.- D. Propiono-Carmine Squash Preparation.- E. Air-Dried Preparations.- F. Construction of a Low-Cost Centrifuge Tube “Flicker”.- G. Preparation of Lactic-Acetic-Orcein.- H. Permanent Slides.- V. Bone Marrow Biopsy Procedure.- VI. Discussion.- VII. Acknowledgments.- VIII. References.- 15 Induction and Analysis of Gene Mutations in Mammalian Cells in Culture.- I. Introduction.- II. The Cell Material.- A. Species Origin.- B. Karyotypic Stability.- C. Plating or Cloning Efficiency.- D. Cold Storage of Cells.- III. Utilization of In Vivo Markers.- A. Morphological Markers.- B. Biochemical Markers.- C. Serological Markers.- D. Radiation-Sensitive Mutants.- IV. Detection of Recessive Mutations in Cell Cultures.- A. Heterozygosity of Autosomal Recessive Genes.- B. Aneuploidy for Autosomes.- C. Natural Monosomy of X Chromosomes in Normal Males or in XO Females.- D. Functional Monosomy of X Chromosomes in Normal Females.- E. Independent Mutation at Both Alleles in Homozygous Dominant Genes.- V. Selective Techniques for New Mutations in Cell Culture.- A. Mass Selection Method.- B. Lethal-Growth Method.- C. “Thymineless Death” Method.- D. Replica-Plating Method.- VI. Characterization of Newly Isolated Variants.- VII. Procedure for Mutation Induction.- A. Choice of the Test System.- B. Forward and Back Mutations.- C. Determination of Cytotoxicity.- D. Elimination of Background Mutations.- E. Treatment with Mutagen.- F. Inoculation of Cells.- G. Addition of Selective Agent.- H. Isolation and Testing of Mutant Colonies.- I. Fixation and Staining of Colonies.- J. Mutation Rate and Mutation Frequency.- VIII. Concluding Remarks.- IX. Acknowledgments.- X. References.- 16 Inducing Mutations with Chemicals in Habrobracon.- I. Introduction.- II. Maintenance of Habrobracon and Ephestia.- A. Habrobracon Culture.- B. Ephestia Culture.- III. Scheme for Mutational Analysis.- A. General Stock.- B. Pretest.- C. Collection of Virgins and Males for Experiment.- D. Treatments.- E. Counts.- F. Test of F1 Females.- G. Mating and Further Testing of Females with Genetic Alterations.- H. Special Mutant Analysis.- I. Homozygosity of Mutants.- J. Further Testing.- K. Data Processing.- L. Catalog of Mutants.- IV. Application of Mutagens.- A. Aerosols.- B. Feeding.- C. Topical Application.- D. Microinjection.- V. Conclusions.- VI. References.- 17 The Detection of Mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.- I. Introduction.- II. Advantages of Drosophila as a Test Organism.- III. Limitations of Drosophila as a Test Organism.- IV. Lethal Tests.- A. Sex-Linked Recessive Lethals.- B. Autosomal Recessive Lethal Test.- V. Tests for Recessive Visible Mutants.- VI. Tests for Chromosomal Rearrangements.- A. Genetic Test for Reciprocal Translocation.- B. Position-Effect Tests for Chromosomal Rearrangement.- C. Cytological Test for Chromosomal Rearrangement.- VII. Tests for Loss of X or Y Chromosomes.- VIII. Tests for Dominant Lethals.- IX. Tests for Half-Translocations.- X. Staging of Germ Cells.- XI. Techniques for Collecting Flies of a Desired Sex.- XII. Review of Literature.- XIII. Summary.- XIV. References.- 18 Root Tips for Studying the Effects of Chemicals on Chromosomes.- I. The Material.- A. Root Tips as Experimental Material.- B. The Horse Bean, Vicia faba.- C. The Common Onion, Allium cepa.- D. The Tree Onion, Allium proliferum.- II. Treatment of Root Tips with Chemicals.- III. Fixation and Staining of Root Tips.- IV. Scoring of Slides and Types of Aberration.- V. Comparison Between the Effects of Chemicals on Chromosomes in Root-Tip Cells and in Cultured Animal Cells.- A. Are Results Obtained in Root Tips Representative for Other Materials?.- B. Tepa and Related Compounds.- C. Nitrilotriacetic Acid, NTA.- D. Caffeine.- E. Concluding Remarks.- VI. Acknowledgments.- VII. References.- VIII. Suggested Reading.- 19 Cytogenetic Studies in Animals.- I. Introduction.- II. Experimental Design.- A. Controls.- B. Replication.- C. Observer Bias.- D. Standardizing Scoring Methods.- E. Statistical Evaluation.- F. Types of Damage.- III. Classification of Chromosomal Aberrations.- IV. Localization of Chromosomal Aberrations.- V. Timing of Chromosomal Damage.- VI. Meiotic Studies.- VII. In Vivo and in Vitro Studies.- VIII. Specific Techniques.- A. Lymphocyte Culture.- B. Bone Marrow (Direct).- C. Fibroblast Culture.- D. Amniotic Fluid Cell Culture.- E. Meiotic Preparations.- IX. Summary.- X. References.- 20 Specific Locus Mutation in Mice.- I. Introduction.- II. The Method, Its Advantages and Disadvantages.- III. Results Obtained.- IV. Conclusions.- V. References.- 21 Dominant Lethal Mutations in Mammals.- I. Introduction.- II. The Dominant Lethal Syndrome.- A. Critical Stages of Pregnancy.- B. Modes of Egg or Fetal Death.- III. The Estimation of Dominant Lethals.- A. Mid-Term Litters.- B. Full-Term Litters.- C. Recommended Protocols.- IV. The Genotypes of Dominant Lethals.- A. Chromosome Loss.- B. Monosomy and Trisomy.- Y. Dominant Lethals in Male Germ Cells.- A. Sperm Maturation.- B. Differential Sensitivity.- VI. Dominant Lethals in Female Germ Cells.- VII. General Validity of the Dominant Lethal Test.- VIII. Synergistic Effects.- IX. Review of Chemicals Tested as Dominant Lethal Mutagens in Mammals.- X. Integration of the Dominant Lethal Assay and Other Mutagenicity Tests into General Toxicological Practice.- XI. References.- 22 The Host-Mediated Assay, a Practical Procedure for Evaluating Potential Mutagenic Agents in Mammals.- I. Introduction.- II. Materials and Methods.- A. Strains.- B. Host-Mediated Assay.- III. Results.- A. Salmonella.- B. Neurospora.- C. Comparative Mutagenicity.- IV. Conclusion.- V. References.- 23 Human Population Monitoring.- I. Introduction.- II. A Classification of Mutational Effects.- A. Cytogenetic Changes.- B. Dominant Mutations.- C. X-Linked Recessive Mutations.- D. Autosomal Recessive Mutations.- E. Mutants with Minor Effects.- III. Criteria for a Mutation-Monitoring System.- A. Is the System Relevant?.- B. How Quickly Will a Mutation Increase Be Detected?.- C. Can the System Detect a Small Increase in the Mutation Rate?.- D. Can Many Kinds of Mutational Events Be Detected?.- E. Does the System Offer a High Probability of Identifying the Cause of the Mutation Increase?.- F. Is the System Available Now?.- IV. Some Ways of Amplifying the Mutation-Detecting Power of Monitoring Systems.- A. Somatic Cytogenetic Studies.- B. Somatic Mutation-Detection Systems.- C. Indirect Monitoring by Testing for Mutagens in Human Blood.- V. Monitoring for Germinal Mutations.- A. Monitoring for Dominant Mutant Phenotypes.- B. Biochemical Monitoring.- VI. Summary.- VII. References.- Conclusion.- Author Index.

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