Table of Contents
(NOTE: Each chapter includes an Interlude and Summary, Key Words, Key Concept Summary, Understanding Key Concepts, Additional Problems, Multi-Concept Problems, and eMedia Problems.)
1. Chemistry: Matter and Measurement.
Approaching Chemistry: Experimentation. Chemistry and the Elements. Elements and the Periodic Table. Some Chemical Properties of the Elements. Experimentation and Measurement. Measuring Mass. Measuring Length. Measuring Temperature. Derived Units: Measuring Volume. Derived Units: Measuring Density. Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures in Measurement. Rounding Numbers. Calculations: Converting from One Unit to Another. 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions.
Conservation of Mass and the Law of Definite Proportions. Dalton's Atomic Theory and the Law of Multiple Proportions. The Structure of Atoms: Electrons. The Structure of Atoms: Protons and Neutrons. Atomic Number. Atomic Mass. Compounds and Mixtures. Molecules, Ions, and Chemical Bonds. Acids and Bases. Naming Chemical Compounds. 3. Formulas, Equations, and Moles.
Balancing Chemical Equations. Chemical Symbols on Different Levels. Avogadro's Number and the Mole. Stoichiometry: Chemical Arithmetic. Yields of Chemical Reactions. Reactions with Limiting Amounts of Reactants. Concentrations of Reactants in Solution: Molarity. Diluting Concentrated Solutions. Solution Stoichiometry. Titration. Percent Composition and Empirical Formulas. Determining Empirical Formulas: ElementalAnalysis. Determining Molecular Masses: Mass Spectrometry. 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution.
Some Ways That Chemical Reactions Occur. Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution. Aqueous Reactions and Net Ionic Equations. Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Rules. Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions. Identifying Redox Reactions. The Activity Series of the Elements. Balancing Redox Reactions: The Oxidation-Number Method. Balancing Redox Reactions: The Half-Reaction Method. Redox Titrations. Some Applications of Redox Reactions. 5. Periodicity and Atomic Structure.
Development of the Periodic Table. Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Spectra. Particlelike Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation: The Planck Equation. Wavelike Properties of Matter: The de Broglie Equation. Quantum Mechanics and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Wave Functions and Quantum Numbers. The Shapes of Orbitals. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Spectra. Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Orbital Energy Levels in Multielectron Atoms. Electron Configurations of Multielectron Atoms. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table. Some Anomalous Electron Configurations. Electron Configurations and Periodic Properties: Atomic Radii. 6. Ionic Bonds and Some Main-Group Chemistry.
Ions and Their Electron Configurations. Ionic Radii. Ionization Energy. Higher Ionization Energies. Electron Affinity. Ionic Bonds and the Formation of Ionic Solids. The Alkali Metals (Group 1A). The Alkaline Earth Metals (Group 2A). The Group 3A Elements: Aluminum. The Halogens (Group 7A). The Noble Gases (Group 8A). The Octet Rule. 7. Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure.
The Covalent Bond. Strengths of Covalent Bonds. A Comparison of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity. Electron-Dot Structures. Electron-Dot Structures of Polyatomic Molecules. Electron-Dot Structures and Resonance. Formal Charges. Molecular Shapes: The VSEPR Model. Valence Bond Theory. Hybridization and sp^3 Hybrid Orbitals. Other Kinds of Hybrid Orbitals. Molecular Orbital Theory: The Hydrogen Molecule. Molecular Orbital Theory: Other Diatomic Molecules. Combining Valence Bond Theory and Molecular Orbital Theory. 8. Thermochemistry: Chemical Energy.
Energy. Energy Changes and Energy Conservation. Internal Energy and State Functions. Expansion Work. Energy and Enthalpy. The Thermodynamic Standard State. Enthalpies of Physical and Chemical Change. Calorimetry and Heat Capacity. Hess's Law. Standard Heats of Formation. Bond Dissociation Energies. Fossil Fuels, Fuel Efficiency, and Heats of Combustion. An Introduction to Entropy. An Introduction to Free Energy. 9. Gases: Their Properties and Behavior.
Gases and Gas Pressure. The Gas Laws. The Ideal Gas Law. Stoichiometric Relationships with Gases. Partial Pressure and Dalton's Law. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases. Graham's Law: Diffusion and Effusion of Gases. The Behavior of Real Gases. The Earth's Atmosphere. 10. Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes.
Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments. Intermolecular Forces. Some Properties of Liquids. Phase Changes. Evaporation, Vapor Pressure, and Boiling Point. Kinds of Solids. Probing the Structure of Solids: X-Ray Crystallography. Unit Cells and the Packing of Spheres in Crystalline Solids. Structures of Some Ionic Solids. Structures of Some Covalent Network Solids. Phase Diagrams. 11. Solutions and Their Properties.
Solutions. Energy Changes and the Solution Process. Units of Concentration. Some Factors Affecting Solubility. Physical Behavior of Solutions: Colligative Properties. Vapor-Pressure Lowering of Solutions: Raoult's Law. Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression of Solutions. Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure. Some Uses of Colligative Properties. Fractional Distillation of Liquid Mixtures. 12. Chemical Kinetics.
Reaction Rates. Rate Laws and Reaction Order. Experimental Determination of a Rate Law. Integrated Rate Law for a First-Order Reaction. Half-Life of a First-Order Reaction. Second-Order Reactions. Reaction Mechanisms. Rate Laws and Reaction Mechanisms. Reaction Rates and Temperature: The Arrhenius Equation. Using the Arrhenius Equation. Catalysis. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts. 13. Chemical Equilibrium.
The Equilibrium State. The Equilibrium Constant Kc. The Equilibrium Constant Kp. Heterogeneous Equilibria. Using the Equilibrium Constant. Factors That Alter the Composition of an Equilibrium Mixture. Altering an Equilibrium Mixture: Changes in Concentration. Altering an Equilibrium Mixture: Changes in Pressure and Volume. Altering an Equilibrium Mixture: Changes in Temperature. The Effect of a Catalyst on Equilibrium. The Link between Chemical Equilibrium and Chemical Kinetics. 14. Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water.
Hydrogen. Isotopes of Hydrogen. Preparation and Uses of Hydrogen. Reactivity of Hydrogen. Binary Hydrides. Oxygen. Preparation and Uses of Oxygen. Reactivity of Oxygen. Oxides. Peroxides and Superoxides. Hydrogen Peroxide. Ozone. Water. Reactivity of Water. Hydrates. 15. Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases.
Acid-Base Concepts: The Brªnsted-Lowry Theory. Acid Strength and Base Strength. Hydrated Protons and Hydronium Ions. Dissociation of Water. The pH Scale. Measuring pH. The pH in Solutions of Strong Acids and Strong Bases. Equilibria in Solutions of Weak Acids. Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations in Solutions of Weak Acids. Percent Dissociation in Solutions of Weak Acids. Polyprotic Acids. Equilibria in Solutions of Weak Bases. Relation between Ka and Kb. Acid-Base Properties of Salts. Factors That Affect Acid Strength. Lewis Acids and Bases. 16. Applications of Aqueous Equilibria.
Neutralization Reactions. The Common-Ion Effect. Buffer Solutions. The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation. pH Titration Curves. Strong Acid-Strong Base Titrations. Weak Acid-Strong Base Titrations. Weak Base-Strong Acid Titrations. Polyprotic Acid-Strong Base Titrations. Solubility Equilibria. Measuring Ksp and Calculating Solubility from Ksp. Factors That Affect Solubility. Precipitation of Ionic Compounds. Separation of Ions by Selective Precipitation. Qualitative Analysis. 17. Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium.
Spontaneous Processes. Enthalpy, Entropy, and Spontaneous Processes: A Brief Review. Entropy and Probability. Entropy and Temperature. Standard Molar Entropies and Standard Entropies of Reaction. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Free Energy. Standard Free-Energy Changes for Reactions. Standard Free Energies of Formation. Free-Energy Changes and Composition of the Reaction Mixture. Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium. 18. Electrochemistry.
Galvanic Cells. Shorthand Notation for Galvanic Cells. Cell Potentials and Free-Energy Changes for Cell Reactions. Standard Reduction Potentials. Using Standard Reduction Potentials. Cell Potentials and Composition of the Reaction Mixture: The Nernst Equation. Electrochemical Determination of pH. Standard Cell Potentials and Equilibrium Constants. Batteries. Corrosion. Electrolysis and Electrolytic Cells. Commercial Applications of Electrolysis. Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis. 19. The Main-Group Elements.
A Review of General Properties and Periodic Trends. Distinctive Properties of the Second-Row Elements. The Group 3A Elements. Boron. The Group 4A Elements. Carbon. Silicon. Germanium, Tin, and Lead. The Group 5A Elements. Nitrogen. Phosphorus. The Group 6A Elements. Sulfur. The Halogens: Oxoacids and Oxoacid Salts. 20. Transition Elements and Coordination Chemistry.
Electron Configurations. Properties of Transition Elements. Oxidation States of Transition Elements. Chemistry of Selected Transition Elements. Coordination Compounds. Ligands. Naming Coordination Compounds. Isomers. Enantiomers and Molecular Handedness. Color of Transition Metal Complexes. Bonding in Complexes: Valence Bond Theory. Crystal Field Theory. 21. Metals and Solid-State Metals.
Sources of Metallic Elements. Metallurgy. Iron and Steel. Bonding in Metals. Semiconductors. Superconductors. Ceramics. Composites. 22. Nuclear Chemistry.
Nuclear Reactions and Their Characteristics. Nuclear Reactions and Radioactivity. Radioactivity Decay Rates. Nuclear Stability. Energy Changes during Nuclear Reactions. Nuclear Fission and Fusion. Nuclear Transmutation. Detecting and Measuring Radioactivity. Biological Effects of Radiation. Applications of Nuclear Chemistry. 23. Organic Chemistry.
The Nature of Organic Molecules. Alkanes and Their Isomers. Drawing Organic Structures. The Shapes of Organic Molecules. Naming Alkanes. Cycloalkanes. Reactions of Alkanes. Families of Organic Molecules: Functional Groups. Alkenes and Alkynes. Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes. Aromatic Compounds and Their Reactions. Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines. Aldehydes and Ketones. Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides. Synthetic Polymers. 24. Biochemistry.
Biochemical Energy. Amino Acids and Peptides. Amino Acids and Molecular Handedness. Proteins. Levels of Protein Structure. Enzymes. Carbohydrates. Handedness of Carbohydrates. Cyclic Structures of Monosaccharides. Some Common Disaccharides and Polysaccharides. Lipids. Nucleic Acids. Base Pairing in DNA: The Watson-Crick Model. Nucleic Acids and Heredity. Appendix A: Mathematical Operations. Appendix B: Thermodynamic Properties at 25°C. Appendix C: Equilibrium Constants at 25°C. Appendix D: Standard Reduction Potentials at 25°C. Answers to Selected Problems. Glossary. Index.