by Facts on File




Frontiers of Science is an eight-volume set that explores notable issues at the forefront of scientific research and inquiry. The interdisciplinary set focuses on the methods and imagination of people who push the boundaries of science by investigating subjects not readily observable or shrouded in obscurity. Understanding the science behind scientific advances is critical because new knowledge and theories sometimes seem unbelievable until the underlying methods leading to their discovery become clear. Designed to complement science curricula, the set covers a broad range of complex, relevant topics that will extend the limits of knowledge and satisfy the curiosity of readers.

Chemistry investigates the research and discoveries of the explorers and scientists who expanded knowledge related to the field. Often, these men and women found materials that exhibit remarkable or useful properties, some of which cure disease or make up motors or machines. Each chapter of the book covers the evolution of a significant topic related to chemistry and contains an introduction, a conclusion, a chronology, and a list of resources that allow the reader to focus on the topic being considered.

The volume includes information on

archaeological chemistry

chemistry of the brain

fuel cells


new chemicals and materials

"smart" materials

The book contains more than 40 color photographs and line illustrations, sidebars, a glossary, the Periodic Table of the Elements, a detailed list of additional print and Internet resources, and an index. Frontiers of Science is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to understand the newest areas of scientific research, from groundbreaking issues that are making headlines to those not as well known.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780816074402
Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date: 05/01/2010
Series: Frontiers of Science Series
Pages: 232
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.70(d)
Age Range: 14 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface vii

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction xiii

1 Developing and Designing New Chemicals and Materials 1

Introduction 2

Chemical Bonds and Molecular Structure 5

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 10

Buckminsterfullerene-A Molecule in the Shape of a Soccer Ball 12

Finding the Right Stuff 14

Combinatorial Chemistry 18

Designing the Right Stuff 19

Quantum Mechanics 20

Predicting the Properties 24

Hitting the Target-Discovering and Designing New Medications 25

Conclusion 28

Chronology 30

Further Resources 32

2 Nanotechnology-Technology on a Molecular Scale 36

Introduction 37

Supramolecular Chemistry 41

Hydrogen Bonds 42

Molecular Machines 46

Building with Atoms 49

Scanning Tunneling Microscope 50

Nanomaterials 52

National Nanotechnology Initiative 56

Nanotechnology in Medicine-Cancer Detection and Treatment 58

Conclusion 63

Chronology 64

Further Resources 66

3 Chemistry of the Brain: Molecules, Mood, and Mental Illness 70

Introduction 72

Synaptic Transmission 75

Neurotransmitters 78

Measuring the Brain's Chemicals 81

Life and Death of a Neurotransmitter Molecule 82

Neurotransmitters and Depression 85

Neurotransmitters and Schizophrenia 89

National Institute of Mental Health 90

Neurotransmitters and Drug Abuse 94

Conclusion 97

Chronology 99

Further Resources 102

4 Smart Materials-Materials That Adapt to Changing Conditions 105

Introduction 106

A Material's I.Q.-Responsiveness to Change 109

Photochromic Material-Changing Color in Response to Light 111

Adaptive and Intelligent Systems 112

Responding to Electricity and Magnetism 114

Shape Memory Alloys 118

Phase Transitions and Shape Memory Alloys 120

Smart Fibers-and Smart Clothes 122

Adaptable Airplanes 123

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 126

Conclusion 129

Chronology 130

Further Resources 132

5 Fuel Cells-Energy for a Power-Hungry World 135

Introduction 137

Fuel Cells 139

Series and Parallel Circuits 142

Powering Spacecraft 144

Engines and Thermodynamics 146

A Clean Source of Energy 148

Finding the Best Catalyst 150

Cars Powered by Fuel Cells 152

National Renewable Energy Laboratory 154

Hydrogen Economy 156

Conclusion 158

Chronology 159

Further Resources 161

6 Archaeological Chemistry-Exploring History with Chemistry 164

Introduction 165

A Cold Case: Ötzi, the Iceman 168

Radiocarbon Dating 170

Ancient DNA 176

Polymerase Chain Reaction 178

What Pharaoh Tutankhamen Drank 182

Museum Applied Science Center for Archaeology 184

Revisiting the Past 185

The Fall of Rome 187

Conclusion 189

Chronology 191

Further Resources 193

Final Thoughts 197

Appendix A Periodic Table of the Elements 200

Appendix B The Chemical Elements 201

Glossary 202

Further Resources 206

Index 209

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