Aquatic systems play a salient role in the complex processes of energy and matter exchange between the geosphere and the atmosphere. For example, reactions taking place in cloud water droplets can substantially alter the atmospheric budget and chemistry of trace gases; pollution induced weathering reactions at water/soil interfaces can affect the availability of nutrients and increase the concentration of potentially toxic metals in groundwaters. Moreover, the inextricable links between the water cycle, the geosphere and the atmosphere ensure that apparently localized environmental problems have increasingly impacts in other parts of the world. To identify local-to-global scale variables associated with environmental changes, a focus must be placed on the recognition of processes, rather than a continued reliance on monitoring state variables. However, in heterogeneous aquatic systems, small scale aspects of a process under observation may not be summed directly to obtain regional estimates because of process nonlinearities with change in scale. To understand this, the integrated use of measurements across a range of scales is required.
Table of ContentsPreface. I: Atmosphere--Rock--Water Interactions. 1. Acquisition of Solutes and Regulation of the Composition of Natural Waters; W. Stumm. 2. Regulation of Drainage Water Composition by Biotic Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems; N. van Bremen. 3. Aquatic Carbonate Systems: Chemical Processes in Natural Waters and Global Cycles; R. Wollast, J.P. Vanderborght. 4. Modeling of heterogeneous Chemistry in the Global Troposphere; J. Lelieveld. II: Metals, Nutrients and Organic Carbon. 5. Biogeochemistry of Organic Matter in Coastal Waters; G. Cauwet, A. Saliot. 6. Microbial Transformation of Metals in Relation to the Biogeochemical Cycle; F. Baldi. 7. Metal Speciation: Concepts, Analysis and Effects; L. Sigg, Hanbin Xue. 8. Light-Induced Processes in the Aquatic Environment; B. Sulzberger, S.I. Hug. 9. Trace Metal/Phytoplankton Interactions in the Sea; W.G. Sunda. 10. Optical Remote Sensing of Marine Ecosystems: Bio-Geochemical Implications of Ocean Colour, Marine Productivity and Atmospheric Interactions; C.N. Murray, V. Barale. III: The Solid--Water Interface. 11. Reactions at the Mineral--Water Interface; L. Charlet. 12. Surfaces Processes in Water Technology; S.A. Banwart. IV: Transformation, Degradation and Transport of Pollutants. Spatial and Temporal Scaling. 13. Sources and Reactivity of Reductants Encountered in Aquatic Environments; A.T. Stone, K.L. Godtfredsen, Baolin Deng. 14. Abiotic Transformation Pathways of Organic Chemicals in Aquatic Ecosystems; E.J. Weber. 15. Coupled Processes in Reaction--Flow Transport of Contaminants; G. Bidoglio. 16. Scale Effects in the Transport of Contaminants in Natural Media; Ph. Behra. 17. Modeling the Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Response of a Catchment Area to Anthropogenic Inputs; T. Paces. 18. Spectral Properties of Soils and the Use of Optical Remote Sensing Systems for Soil Erosion Mapping; J. Hill. Index.