Chemistry Super Review

Chemistry Super Review

by Editors of REA

Paperback(Second Edition, Revised)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780738611167
Publisher: Research & Education Association
Publication date: 12/17/2012
Series: Super Reviews Study Guides Series
Edition description: Second Edition, Revised
Pages: 240
Sales rank: 570,292
Product dimensions: 5.40(w) x 8.20(h) x 0.80(d)
Age Range: 16 - 18 Years

About the Author

Founded in 1959, Research & Education Association is dedicated to publishing the finest and most effective educational materials— including study guides and test preps—for students in middle school, high school, college, graduate school, and beyond.

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Introduction

1.1 Matter and Its Properties

1.1.1 Definition of Matter
Matter occupies space and possesses mass. Mass is an intrinsic property of matter. Weight is the force, due to gravity, with which an object is attracted to the earth. Force and mass are related to each other by Newton’s equation (Newton’s Law), F ma, where F force, m mass, and a acceleration. Weight and mass are related by the equation w mg, where w weight, m mass, and g acceleration due to gravity. Note that the terms “mass” and “weight” are often (incorrectly) used interchangeably in most literature.

1.1.2 States of Matter
Matter occurs in three states or phases: solid, liquid, and gas. A solid has both a definite size and shape. A liquid has a definite volume but takes the shape of the container, and a gas has neither definite shape nor definite volume.

1.1.3 Composition of Matter
Matter is divided into two categories: distinct substances and mixtures. Distinct substances are either elements or compounds. An element is made up of only one kind of atom. A compound is composed of two or more kinds of atoms joined together in a definite composition.

Mixtures contain two or more distinct substances more or less intimately jumbled together. A mixture has no unique set of properties: it possesses the properties of the substances of which it is composed.

In a homogeneous mixture, the composition and physical properties are uniform throughout. Only a single phase is present. A homogeneous mixture can be gaseous, liquid, or solid. A heterogeneous mixture, such as oil and water, is not uniform and consists of two or more phases.

1.1.4 Properties of Matter
Extensive properties, such as mass and volume, depend on the size of the sample. Intensive properties, such as melting point, boiling point, and density, are independent of sample size. Physical properties of matter are those properties that can be observed, usually with our senses. Examples of physical properties are physical state, color, and melting point.

Chemical properties of a substance are observed only in chemical reactions involving that substance. Reactivity is a chemical property that refers to the tendency of a substance to undergo a particular chemical reaction.

Conservation of Matter
Chemical changes are those that involve the breaking and/or forming of chemical bonds, as in a chemical reaction. Physical changes do not result in the formation of new substances. Changes in state are physical changes.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Matter and Its Properties
1.2 Conservation of Matter
1.3 Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions
1.4 Energy and Conservation of Energy
1.5 Measurement
Quiz: Introduction

Chapter 2 Stoichiometry, Chemical Arithmetic
2.1 The Mole
2.2 Atomic Weight
2.3 Molecular Weight and Formula Weight
2.4 Equivalent Weight
2.5 Balancing Chemical Equations
2.6 Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
2.7 Limiting-Reactant Calculations
2.8 Theoretical Yield and Percentage Yield
2.9 Percentage Composition
2.10 Density and Molecular Weight
2.11 Weight-Volume Relationships
Quiz: Stoichiometry, Chemical Arithmetic

Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
3.1 Atomic Spectra
3.2 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
3.3 Electric Nature of Atoms
3.4 The Wave Mechanical Model
3.5 Subshells and Electron Configuration
3.6 Isotopes
3.7 Transition Elements and Variable Oxidation Numbers
3.8 Periodic Table
3.9 Properties Related to the Periodic Table
Quiz: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table

Chapter 4 Bonding
4.1 Types of Bonds
4.2 Intermolecular Forces of Attraction
4.3 Double and Triple Bonds
4.4 Resonance Structures
4.5 Electrostatic Repulsion and Hybridization
4.6 Sigma and Pi Bonds
4.7 Properties of Ionic Substances
4.8 Properties of Molecular Crystals and Liquids
Quiz: Bonding

Chapter 5 Chemical Formulas
5.1 Chemical Formulas
5.2 Naming Compounds
5.3 Writing Formulas
5.4 Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Chapter 6 Types and Rates of Chemical Reactions
6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions
6.2 Measurements of Reaction Rates
6.3 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
6.4 The Arrhenius Equation: Relating Temperature and Reaction Rate
6.5 Activation Energy
6.6 Reaction Rate Law
6.7 Collision Theory of Reaction Rates
Quiz: Chemical Formulas-Types and Rates of Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7 Gases
7.1 Volume and Pressure
7.2 Boyle’s Law
7.3 Charles’ Law
7.4 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
7.5 Law of Gay-Lussac
7.6 Ideal Gas Law
7.7 Combined Gas Law
7.8 Avogadro’s Law (The Mole Concept)
7.9 Real Gases
7.10 Graham’s Law of Effusion and Diffusion
7.11 The Kinetic Molecular Theory
Quiz: Gases

Chapter 8 Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes
8.1 Liquids
8.2 Heat of Vaporization and Heat of Fusion
8.3 Raoult’s Law and Vapor Pressure
8.4 Boiling Point and Melting Point
8.5 Solids
8.6 Phase Diagram of Water
8.7 Phase Equilibrium
Quiz: Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes

Chapter 9 Properties of Solutions
9.1 Types of Solutions
9.2 Concentration Units
9.3 The Solution Process
9.4 Heat of Solution
9.5 Solubility and Temperature
9.6 Effect of Pressures on Solubility
9.7 Fractional Crystallization
9.8 Fractional Distillation
9.9 Vapor Pressures of Solutions
9.10 Colligative Properties of Solutions
9.11 Osmotic Pressure
9.12 Interionic Attractions
Quiz: Properties of Solutions

Chapter 10 Acids and Bases
10.1 Definitions of Acids and Bases
10.2 Properties of Acids and Bases
10.3 Factors Influencing the Strengths of Acids

Chapter 11 Acid-Base Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions
11.1 Ionization of Water, pH
11.2 Dissociation of Weak Electrolytes
11.3 Dissociation of Polyprotic Acids
11.4 Buffers
11.5 Hydrolysis
11.6 Acid-Base Titration: The Equivalence Point
11.7 Acid-Base Indicators
Quiz: Acids and Bases—Acid-Base Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 12 Chemical Equilibrium
12.1 The Law of Mass Action
12.2 Kinetics and Equilibrium
12.3 Thermodynamics and Chemical Equilibrium
12.4 The Relationship Between Kp and Kc
12.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria
12.6 Le Chatelier’s Principle and Chemical Equilibrium
Quiz: Chemical Equilibrium

Chapter 13 Chemical Thermodynamics
13.1 Some Commonly Used Terms in Thermodynamics
13.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics
13.3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
13.4 Enthalpy
13.5 Heat of Reaction
13.6 Hess’s Law of Heat Summation
13.7 Standard States
13.8 Bond Energies
13.9 Spontaneity of Chemical Reactions
13.10 Entropy
13.11 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
13.12 Standard Entropies and Free Energies
Quiz: Chemical Thermodynamics

Chapter 14 Oxidation and Reduction
14.1 Oxidation and Reduction
14.2 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Using the Oxidation Number Method
14.3 Balancing Redox Equations: The Ion-Electron Method
14.4 Non-Standard-State Cell Potentials
14.5 Electrolytic Cells
14.6 Faraday’s Law
14.7 Voltaic Cells
Quiz: Oxidation and Reduction
The Periodic Table

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