Pub. Date:
Harcourt College Publishers
Chemistry: Principles and Reactions / Edition 2

Chemistry: Principles and Reactions / Edition 2

by William L. Masterton
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780030290039
Publisher: Harcourt College Publishers
Publication date: 02/01/1993

About the Author

William L. Masterton received his PhD in physical chemistry from the University of Illinois in 1953. Two years later he began to work at the University of Connecticut, where he taught general chemistry and a graduate course in chemical thermodynamics. He has received numerous teaching awards, including an award from the Student Senate at the University of Connecticut, of which he was most proud. Dr. Masterton is co-author of the all-time best-selling general chemistry textbook CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES, which has sold well over 1.5 million copies. Dr. Masterton's field of research, solution thermodynamics, prepared him well for making maple syrup each March at the family farmhouse in New Hampshire.

Cecile Nespral Hurley received her MS at the University of California, Los Angeles. Since 1979, she has served as Lecturer and Coordinator of Freshman Chemistry at the University of Connecticut, where she directed a groundbreaking National Science Foundation-supported project on cooperative learning in general chemistry. She is one of a prestigious group of University Teaching Fellows who are selected by their fellow faculty members as models of teaching excellence and dedication. In addition, she coordinates the High School Cooperative Program in Chemistry through which superior Connecticut high school students take the university's general chemistry course at their schools. In her spare time, Professor Hurley roots for the University of Connecticut women's basketball Huskies—and roots out weeds from her country garden, which she likes to imagine rivals Monet's at Giverny.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1Matter and Measurements2
1.1Types of Matter3
1.3Properties of Substances15
Chemistry: The Human Side: Antoine Lavoisier16
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Titanium: A Space-Age Metal19
Chapter Highlights20
Summary Problem21
Questions & Problems21
Chapter 2Atoms, Molecules, and Ions26
2.1Atoms and the Atomic Theory27
Chemistry: The Human Side: John Dalton27
2.2Components of the Atom28
2.3Introduction to the Periodic Table33
2.4Molecules and Ions35
2.5Formulas of Ionic Compounds40
2.6Names of Compounds41
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Ethyl Alcohol and the Law45
Chapter Highlights46
Summary Problem47
Questions & Problems47
Chapter 3Mass Relations in Chemistry; Stoichiometry52
3.1Atomic Masses53
3.2The Mole56
3.3Mass Relations in Chemical Formulas58
3.4Mass Relations in Reactions61
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Hydrates68
Chapter Highlights69
Summary Problem69
Questions & Problems70
Chapter 4Reactions in Aqueous Solution76
4.1Solute Concentrations; Molarity77
4.2Precipitation Reactions79
4.3Acid-Base Reactions82
Chemistry: The Human Side: Svante August Arrhenius87
4.4Oxidation-Reduction Reactions87
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Antacids94
Chapter Highlights95
Summary Problem95
Questions & Problems96
Chapter 5Gases102
5.1Measurements on Gases103
5.2The Ideal Gas Law105
5.3Gas Law Calculations107
5.4Stoichiometry of Gaseous Reactions110
Chemistry: The Human Side: Amadeo Avogadro112
5.5Gas Mixtures: Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions113
5.6Kinetic Theory of Gases115
5.7Real Gases121
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Airbags123
Chapter Highlights124
Summary Problem124
Questions & Problems125
Chapter 6Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table130
6.1Light, Photon Energies, and Atomic Spectra131
6.2The Hydrogen Atom134
6.3Quantum Numbers138
6.4Atomic Orbitals; Shapes and Sizes141
6.5Electron Configurations in Atoms141
Chemistry: The Human Side: Glenn Seaborg145
6.6Orbital Diagrams of Atoms146
6.7Electron Arrangements in Monatomic Ions148
6.8Periodic Trends in the Properties of Atoms150
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: The Aurora155
Chapter Highlights156
Summary Problem156
Questions & Problems157
Chapter 7Covalent Bonding162
7.1Lewis Structures; The Octet Rule164
Chemistry: The Human Side: G. N. Lewis172
7.2Molecular Geometry173
7.3Polarity of Molecules180
7.4Atomic Orbitals; Hybridization183
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: The Noble Gases188
Chapter Highlights189
Summary Problem189
Questions & Problems190
Chapter 8Thermochemistry194
8.1Principles of Heat Flow195
8.2Measurement of Heat Flow; Calorimetry198
8.4Thermochemical Equations202
8.5Enthalpies of Formation206
8.6Bond Enthalpy210
8.7The First Law of Thermodynamics212
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Energy Balance in the Human Body216
Chapter Highlights218
Summary Problem218
Questions & Problems219
Chapter 9Liquids and Solids224
9.1Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium225
9.2Phase Diagrams230
9.3Molecular Substances; Intermolecular Forces233
9.4Network Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Solids238
9.5Crystal Structures244
Chemistry: The Human Side: Dorothy Hodgkin247
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Allotropy249
Chapter Highlights250
Summary Problem251
Questions & Problems252
Chapter 10Solutions256
10.1Concentration Units257
10.2Principles of Solubility261
10.3Colligative Properties of Nonelectrolytes264
10.4Colligative Properties of Electrolytes271
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Maple Syrup274
Chapter Highlights275
Summary Problem275
Questions & Problems276
Chapter 11Rate of Reaction282
11.1Meaning of Reaction Rate283
11.2Reaction Rate and Concentration286
11.3Reactant Concentration and Time290
11.4Models for Reaction Rate295
Chemistry: The Human Side: Henry Eyring299
11.5Reaction Rate and Temperature299
11.7Reaction Mechanisms304
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: The Ozone Story308
Chapter Highlights310
Summary Problem310
Questions & Problems311
Chapter 12Gaseous Chemical Equilibrium320
12.1The N[subscript 2]O[subscript 4]-NO[subscript 2] Equilibrium System321
12.2The Equilibrium Constant Expression324
12.3Determination of K329
12.4Applications of the Equilibrium Constant330
12.5Effect of Changes in Conditions on an Equilibrium System334
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: An Industrial Application of Gaseous Equilibrium340
Chapter Highlights342
Summary Problem342
Questions & Problems343
Chapter 13Acids and Bases350
13.1Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Model351
13.2The Ion Product of Water352
13.3pH and pOH353
13.4Weak Acids and Their Equilibrium Constants357
13.5Weak Bases and Their Equilibrium Constants365
13.6Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions368
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Organic Acids and Bases371
Chapter Highlights373
Summary Problem373
Questions & Problems374
Chapter 14Equilibria in Acid-Base Solutions378
14.2Acid-Base Indicators386
14.3Acid-Base Titrations388
Chemistry: Beyond The Classroom: Acid Rain394
Chapter Highlights395
Summary Problem396
Questions & Problems396
Chapter 15Complex Ions402
15.1Composition of Complex Ions403
15.2Geometry of Complex Ions407
Chemistry: The Human Side: Alfred Werner411
15.3Electronic Structure of Complex Ions411
15.4Formation Constants of Complex Ions416
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Chelates: Natural and Synthetic418
Chapter Highlights420
Summary Problem420
Questions & Problems421
Chapter 16Precipitation Equilibria424
16.1Precipitate Formation; Solubility Product Constant (K[subscript sp])425
16.2Dissolving Precipitates431
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Qualitative Analysis436
Chapter Highlights438
Summary Problem438
Questions & Problems439
Chapter 17Spontaneity of Reaction444
17.1Spontaneous Processes445
17.2Entropy, S447
17.3Free Energy, G452
Chemistry: The Human Side: J. Willard Gibbs453
17.4Standard Free Energy Change, [Delta]G[degree]454
17.5Effect of Temperature, Pressure, and Concentration on Reaction Spontaneity457
17.6The Free Energy Change and the Equilibrium Constant461
17.7Additivity of Free Energy Changes; Coupled Reactions462
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Global Warming465
Chapter Highlights466
Summary Problem467
Questions & Problems468
Chapter 18Electrochemistry474
18.1Voltaic Cells475
18.2Standard Voltages479
18.3Relations Between E[degree], [Delta]G[degree], and K484
18.4Effect of Concentration on Voltage486
18.5Electrolytic Cells489
Chemistry: The Human Side: Michael Faraday493
18.6Commercial Cells493
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Corrosion of Metals498
Chapter Highlights499
Summary Problem500
Questions & Problems500
Chapter 19Nuclear Reactions506
Chemistry: The Human Side: The Curies511
19.2Rate of Radioactive Decay512
19.3Mass-Energy Relations514
19.4Nuclear Fission518
19.5Nuclear Fusion521
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Biological Effects of Radiation523
Chapter Highlights524
Summary Problem525
Questions & Problems525
Chapter 20Chemistry of the Metals530
20.2Reactions of the Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals537
20.3Redox Chemistry of the Transition Metals540
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Essential Metals in Nutrition546
Chapter Highlights547
Summary Problem547
Questions & Problems548
Chapter 21Chemistry of the Nonmetals550
21.1The Elements and Their Preparation551
21.2Hydrogen Compounds of Nonmetals555
21.3Oxygen Compounds of Nonmetals559
21.4Oxoacids and Oxoanions562
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Arsenic and Selenium570
Chapter Highlights571
Summary Problem571
Questions & Problems572
Chapter 22Organic Chemistry576
22.1Saturated Hydrocarbons: Alkanes577
22.2Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: Alkenes and Alkynes581
22.3Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives583
22.4Oxygen Compounds; Functional Groups585
22.5Isomerism in Organic Compounds588
22.6Synthetic Organic Polymers593
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Cholesterol596
Chapter Highlights598
Summary Problem598
Questions & Problems599
Appendix 1Units, Constants, and Reference Data603
Appendix 2Properties of the Elements609
Appendix 3Exponents and Logarithms611
Appendix 4Nomenclature616
Appendix 5Molecular Orbitals619
Appendix 6Answers to Even-Numbered and Challenge Questions & Problems625

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