This volume records the papers presented in Warsaw on the meeting of the International Society of Arterial Chemoreception (LS. A. C. ) organized as a Satellite Symposium of the XXXI International Congress of the Union of Physiological Sciences (I. U. P. S. ) in Helsinki in July 1989. It is a 30 years old tradition to hold periodically international meetings on recent developments in chemoreceptor research and to exchange information between those of us interested in chemoreception. The first meeting was organized by B. B. Lloyd in Oxford in 1959. Later on, similar international meetings were held at irregular intervals. In 1966, R. W. Torrance organized the second meeting again in Oxford. In 1973, the third meeting was organized in Bristol (U. K. ) by M. J. Purves. In 1974, a fourth meeting combined with the XXVI I. U. P. S. Congress in Delhi was organized by A. S. Paintal in Srinagar (Kashmir, India). In 1976, H. Acker organized the fifth meeting in Dortmund (F. R. G. ), and in 1979, C. Belmonte in Valla dolid (Spain) organized the sixth international meeting commemorating the 50th anniversary of Fernando de Castro publishing his classical work on the structure and possible function of the carotid body. In 1982, the seventh meeting was due to D. J. Pallot in Leicester (U. K. ), in 1985 - the eighth one due to A. J.
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Table of Contents1. Molecular and Ionic Mechanisms of Chemoreception and Chemotransduction.- Transmitter Dynamics in the Carotid Body.- Does an Inward-Rectifying K Channel Regulate Type-I Cell Response to Hypoxia?.- Selective Effect of Reduced Extracellular pH on Potassium Channels in Type-I Cells from the Neonatal Rat Carotid Body.- Calcium Channel Activation and Neural Output during Hypoxic Chemotransduction in the Carotid Body.- Involvement of Na+:H+ and Na+:Ca++ Antiporters in the Chemotransduction of Acidic Stimuli.- The Action of Carbon Dioxide in Central and Peripheral Chemoreceptors.- Respiratory Responses to Common Carotid Occlusion in the Rat: Evidence for Involvement of Adenosine.- Participation of cAMP in Low pO2 Chemotransduction in the Carotid Body.- Lectin Histochemistry on Carotid Body Tissue in Normoxic and Long-Term Hypoxic Rats.- 2. Arterial Chemoreceptors – Biochemistry and Electrophysiology.- Phosphorescence and Fluorescence Imaging: New Tools for the Study of Carotid Body Function.- Erythropoietin–Associated Antigen in the Human Carotid Body.- Efferent Innervation of the Carotid Body and Carotid Sinus in the Guinea Pig.- The Catecholamine Metabolism in Rat Carotid Body: Is there Any Efferent Regulation during Long Term Hypercapnia?.- Are Chemoreceptor Neurons Dopaminergic?.- Biochemical Analysis of Neutral Endopeptidase Activity of the Cat Carotid Body.- Analysis of Chemoreceptor Responses to Tachykinins in Rats. Cats and Rabbits.- Influence of Hypercapnia on Rabbit Intrapulmonary Neuroepithelial Bodies: Microfluorimetrical and Morphometrical Study.- Neuroepithelial Bodies in the Lungs of Bombina Orientalis (Boul.).- Messenger RNAs for Neuropeptides in Primary Sensory Neurons of the Petrosal Ganglion in Rat.- Role of EDHF, PGI2, and Norepinephrine in Hypoxic Vasorelaxation and Vasoconstriction.- 3. Arterial Chemo0Receptors in Physiological and Experimental Conditions.- Oxygen Supply in the Fetal and Newborn Lamb Carotid Body.- The Cardiovascular Response to Systemic Hypoxia in the Cat: The Role of the Renin–Angiotensin System.- Effects of Hypoxia in Developing Swine.- The Effect of Prolonged Stimulation on Afferent Activity of the Goat Carotid Body.- Effect of Deep Peroneal Nerve Stimulation on the Carotid Chemoreceptor Afferent Discharges in Rabbits.- Different Methods of Analysis to Study Oscillations of Peripheral Arterial Chemoreceptor Discharges in the Anaesthetized Cat.- Peripheral Chemoreflex Control of Sympathetic Nerve Activity.- Responses of Sympatho–Adrehal Medullary System to Hypoxia and Hypercapnia in Anesthetized Artificially Ventilated Rats.- 4. Arterial Chemoreceptors –Reflex Mechanisms in Exercise and Hypoxia.- Respiratory Modulation of Cardiovascular Responses to Stimulation of Carotid Chemoreceptors and Other Receptors.- Nonlinearities and Chaos-Like Control of Respiration during Square Wave Pulse Train Hypoxic Stimulation of the Carotid Body Chemoreceptors.- Chemoreceptor Control of Organ Vascular Resistance during Acute Systemic Hypoxia.- Electromyogram of the Transversus Abdominis Expiratory Muscle during Chronic Hypoxia in Awake Ponies.- Breathing Pattern Characteristics and Survival Time during Severe Hypoxia in Cats.- CO2 Chemoreflex in Spinal Man.- Transient Ventilatory Responses to Carbon Dioxide Inhalation and to Exercise in Man.- Possible Involvement of Peripheral Chemoreceptor Mechanism in Bradycardia Observed during Breath Holding with Supramaximal Exercise.- Importance of Arterial Chemoreceptors for Cardiorespiratory Responses to Static Exercise in Man.- 5. Almitrine and Arterial Chemoreflexes.- Ultrastructure of Type-I Cell Mitochondria in the Rat Carotid Body Following Chronic Oral Administration of Almitrine Bismesylate.- Carotid Chemosensory Stimulation by Sulfhydryls and Almitrine is not Mediated by Tissue Hypoxia.- The Dopamine Turnover in Rat Carotid Body under Chronic Almitrine Treatment: Effects of Sinus Nerve Transection and Sympathectomy.- Attenuation of Chemoexcitation Induced by Almitrine Bismesylate in Anaesthetized Cats.- Action of Almitrine on the Laryngeal Passage in Cats.- Does the Stimulation of Peripheral Arterial Chemoreceptors in Humans by Almitrine Bismesylate Inhibit Proximal Tubular Reabsorption?.- 6. Central Neuronal Organization of Arterial Chemoreceptor Reflexes.- Autoradiographic Studies on the Effects of Chronic Unilateral Sectioning of a Carotid Sinus Nerve on 5-HT and SP Binding Sites in the Carotid Body and NTS.- Medullary Respiratory Neurons with Projections to the Ventral Surface of the Medulla in the Guinea Pig.- The Central Nervous Organization of the Carotid Body Chemoreceptor Reflex.- “Gating” of Peripheral Chemoreceptor Input to Medullary Inspiratory Neurons: Role of Bötzinger Complex Neurons.- The Role of Glutamate in the Transmission of the Hypoxic Input to Respiration through the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius.- Restoration of Chemoreflexes after Unilateral Carotid Deafferentation.- A Study of the Effects of Airway Carbon Dioxide (PawC02) on Superior Laryngeal Nerve Afferents Using an Isolated Artificially Ventilated Closed Laryngeal Preparation in the Anaesthetized Cat.- 7. Arterial Chemoreflexes in Pathological Conditions.- The Carotid Bodies of the Lyon Hypertensive Rats.- The Increased Catecholamine Content in the Carotid Bodies of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.- The Aortic and Carotid Bodies of Chronically Hypoxic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR).- Effects of Chronic Chemoreceptor Stimulation on Blood Pressure and Blood Volume in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR).- Ventilatory and Blood Pressure Reactions to Acute Hypoxia and Hyperoxia in Chemoreceptor-Denervated NWR and SHR.- Effects of Hyperoxia on Salt Intake in Carotid Body Denervated Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR).- Respiratory and Cardiovascular Responses to Hypoxia, Hyperoxia and Perfusion of the Carotid Arteries in Cholesterol–Fed Rabbit.- Arterial Chemoreceptors Reflexes in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) and in Patients with Essential Hypertension.- The Reactions of Renal Excretory Function in Normotensive and Essentially Hypertensive Men in Response to Oral Administration of Almitrine Bismesylate.