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Child Development: A Cultural Approach / Edition 1

Child Development: A Cultural Approach / Edition 1

by Jeffrey J. Arnett, Ashley Maynard
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Help students understand how culture impacts development - and why it matters.

Through current research and examples from around the world, Arnett/Maynard’s Child Development provides students with a more accurate and practical understanding of how development works in the real world. Whether they travel the globe or remain in their home towns, students will benefit from being able to think culturally about human development and our culturally diverse and globalized world. New U.S. and international videos, shot in several countries, allow students to observe similarities and differences in human development across cultures.

MyDevelopmentLab is an integral part of the Arnett/Maynard program. Key learning applications include a personalized study plan, MyDevelopmentLab Video Series, and MyVirtualChild.

A better teaching and learning experience

The teaching and learning experience with this program helps to:

  • Personalize Learning – MyDevelopmentLab is online learning. MyDevelopmentLab engages students through personalized learning and helps instructors from course preparation to delivery and assessment.
  • Understand Culture and Diversity – Extensive cultural coverage is woven into the narrative and on vivid display in images.
  • Improve Critical Thinking – Students will learn to think critically about the influence of culture on development. Learning objectives, listed at the start of each chapter and within every section, help students better organize and understand the material.
  • Engage Students – Research and examples on the similarities and differences in child development across cultures will fascinate students.
  • Explore Research – Students are presented with current research and examples from around the world.
  • Support Instructors – All supplements were developed around the textbook’s carefully constructed learning objectives.

Child Development: A Cultural Approach, covers prenatal development through adolescence and emerging adulthood and is available in hardcover, paperback, and à la Carte versions. It is also available in an abridged paperback version, Child Development through Middle Childhood .

Click here to view a sample chapter!

020594972X / 9780205949724 Child Development Plus New MyDevelopmentLab with eText

Package consists of

0205841074 / 9780205841073 Child Development: A Cultural Approach

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205841073
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 10/22/2012
Pages: 560
Product dimensions: 9.10(w) x 11.00(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Jeffrey Jensen Arnett is a Research Professor in the Department of Psychology at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. He received his Ph.D. in developmental psychology in 1986 from the University of Virginia, and did 3 years of postdoctoral work at the University of Chicago. From 1992—1998 he was Associate Professor in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of Missouri where he taught a 300-student life-span development course every semester. From 1998—2005 he was a Visiting Associate Professor in the Department of Human Development at the University of Maryland. In the fall of 2005 he was a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.

His primary scholarly interest for the past 10 years has been in emerging adulthood. He coined the term, and has conducted research on emerging adults concerning a wide variety of topics, involving several different ethnic groups in American society. He is the editor of the Journal of Adolescent Research, and is on the Editorial Board of four other journals. He has published many theoretical and research papers on emerging adulthood in peer-reviewed journals, as well as the books Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach (2013, 5th edition, Pearson), and Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens Through the Twenties (2004, Oxford University Press).

He lives in Worcester, Massachusetts, with his wife Lene Jensen and their twins, Miles and Paris. For more information on Dr. Arnett and his research, see

Ashley E. Maynard is Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where she has been on the faculty since 2001. She received her Ph.D. in Psychology in 1999 from the University of California, Los Angeles and did two years of postdoctoral study in Anthropology and Cultural Psychology in the Department of Neuropsychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences at UCLA.

Her primary research interest since 1995 has been the impacts of cultural change at the macro-level, such as economic and sociodemographic shifts, on socialization and cognition in childhood. She also studies the development of teaching in childhood and sibling interactions. She works with her students in Mexico, Costa Rica, Switzerland, and Hawaii. She has won national awards for her research, including the James McKeen Cattell Award from the New York Academy of Sciences and the APA Division 7 (Developmental Psychology) Dissertation Award. She has published many articles on culture and human development in peer-reviewed journals, and an edited book Learning in Cultural Context: Family, Peers, and School (2005, Springer).

She lives, teaches, and writes in Honolulu, Hawaii. For more information on Dr. Maynard and her research, please see

Table of Contents

In this Section:
1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


Chapter 1: A Cultural Approach to Child Development

Chapter 2: Genetics and Prenatal Development

Chapter 3: Birth and the Newborn Child

Chapter 4: Infancy

Chapter 5: Toddlerhood

Chapter 6: Early Childhood

Chapter 7: Middle Childhood

Chapter 8: Adolescence

Chapter 9: Emerging Adulthood


Chapter 1: A Cultural Approach to Child Development


Humanity Today: A Demographic Profile

Variations Across Countries

Variations Within Countries

The Origins of Human Diversity

Evolution and the Birth of Culture

Human Evolution and Human Development Today

Section 2: theories of Human Development

Classic Theories

Psychodynamic Theories

Behaviorism and Learning Theories

Constructivist Theories

Recent Theories

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory

A Stage Model for This Book

Section 3: How We Study Human Development

The Scientific Study of Human Development

The Five Steps of the Scientific Method

Ethics in Human Development Research

Methods and Designs in Research

Research Methods

Research Designs

Summing Up

CULTURAL FOCUS: Incredible India!

HISTORICAL FOCUS: Ancient Conceptions of Human Development

RESEARCH FOCUS: Darwin’s Diary

Chapter 2: Genetics and Prenatal Development


Genetic Basics

Genotype and Phenotype

The Sex Chromosomes

Genes and Environment in Human Development

Principles of Behavior Genetics

Gene—Environment Interactions: Epigenesis and Reaction Ranges

The Theory of Genotype ® Environment Effects

Genes and Individual Development

Sperm and Egg Formation



Prenatal Development

The Germinal Period (First 2 Weeks)

The Embryonic Period (Weeks 3—8)

The Fetal Period (Week 9—Birth)

Prenatal Care

Prenatal Care in Traditional Cultures

Scientifically Based Prenatal Care



Risks in the Prenatal Period

Chromosomal Disorders

Prenatal Diagnosis

Infertility and Reproductive Technologies

Causes of Infertility

Infertility Treatments

Infertility Worldwide

Summing Up

Cultural Focus: Oskar and Jack: A Story of Genes, Environments, and Cultures

Historical Focus: How Are Babies Made?

RESEARCH FOCUS: The Human Genome Project

Chapter 3: Birth and the Newborn Child

Section 1: Birth and its Cultural Context

The Birth Process

Stages of the Birth Process

Birth Complications

Cultural and Historical Variations in Birth Beliefs and Practices

Variations in Birth Beliefs

Variations in Birth Practices

Variations on Birth in the West

Cultural Variations in Neonatal and Maternal Mortality

Section 2: The Neonate

The Neonate’s Health

Measuring Neonatal Health

Low Birth Weight

Physical Functioning of the Neonate

Neonatal Sleeping Patterns

Neonatal Reflexes

Neonatal Senses

Section 3: Caring for the Neonate

Nutrition: Is Breast Best?

Evolutionary and Historical Perspectives on Breast Feeding

Benefits of Breast Feeding

Social and Emotional Aspects of Neonatal Care

Crying and Soothing

Bonding: Myth and Truth

Postpartum Depression

Summing Up

Cultural Focus: Easing Birth Among the Cuna Indians

Historical Focus: The Tragic History of Doctor-Assisted Births in the 19th Century

Research Focus: How Much Does Breast Feeding Matter?

Chapter 4: Infancy

Section 1: Physical Development

Growth and Change in Infancy

Bodily Growth

Brain Development

Sleep Changes

Infant Health

Nutritional Needs

Infant Mortality

Baby on the Move: Motor and Sensory Development

Motor Development

Sensory Development

Section 2: Cognitive Development

Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage

The Sensorimotor Substages

Object Permanence

Evaluating Piaget’s Sensorimotor Theory

Information Processing in Infancy



Assessing Infant Development

Approaches to Assessing Development

Can Media Enhance Cognitive Development? The Myth of “Baby Einstein”

The Beginnings of Language

First Sounds and Words

Infant-Directed (ID) Speech

Section 3: Emotional and Social Development


Conceptualizing Temperament: Three Approaches


Infants’ Emotions

Primary Emotions

Infants’ Emotional Perceptions

The Social World of the Infant

Cultural Themes of Infant Social Life

The Foundation of Social Development: Two Theories

Summing Up

Cultural Focus: Infant Care in Rural Turkey

Historical Focus: Protecting Infants the Puritan Way

Research Focus: Measuring Temperament

Chapter 5: Toddlerhood

Section 1: physical development

Growth and Change in Years 2 and 3

Bodily Growth

Brain Development

Sleep and (More) Teething

Motor Development

Socializing Physical Functions: Toilet Training and Weaning

Toilet Training


Section 2: cognitive development

Cognitive Development Theories

Cognitive Development in Toddlerhood: Piaget’s Theory

Vygotsky’s Cultural Theory of Cognitive Development

Language Development

The Biological and Evolutionary Bases of Language

Milestones of Toddler Language: From First Words to Fluency

Learning Language in a Social and Cultural Context

Section 3: emotional and social development

Emotional Development in Toddlerhood

Toddlers’ Emotions

The Birth of the Self

Gender Identity and the Biology of Gender Development

One Special Person: Attachment Theory and Research

Attachment Theory

Quality of Attachment

Critiques of Attachment Theory

The Social World of the Toddler

The Role of Fathers

The Wider Social World: Siblings, Peers, and Friends

Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Disruption in Social Development

Media Use in Toddlerhood

Summing Up

CULTURAL FOCUS: Toddlerhood in Aboriginal Australia

Historical Focus: The History of Toilet Training

RESEARCH FOCUS: Early Child Care and Its Consequences

Chapter 6: Early Childhood


Growth from Age 3 to 6

Bodily Growth

Brain Development and “Infantile” Amnesia

Health and Safety in Early Childhood

Motor Development

Gross and Fine Motor Skills



Theories of Cognitive Development

Piaget’s Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development

Understanding Thinking: The Development of “Theory of Mind”

Cultural Learning in Early Childhood

Early Childhood Education

The Importance of Preschool Quality

Cross-National Variations

Preschool as a Cognitive Intervention

Language Development

Advances in Vocabulary and Grammar

Pragmatics: Social and Cultural Rules of Language


Emotional Regulation and Gender Socialization

Emotional Regulation

Moral Development

Gender Development


Parenting “Styles”

Parenting in Other Cultures

Discipline and Punishment

The Child’s Expanding Social World

Siblings and “Only Children”

Peers and Friends

Media Use in Early Childhood

Summing Up

Cultural Focus: Shyness in China and Canada

Historical Focus: Beat a Child, Save a Soul

Research Focus: The Montessori Preschool Program

Chapter 7: Middle Childhood

Section 1: physical development

Growth in Middle Childhood

Physical Growth and Sensory Development

Nutrition and Malnutrition

Illness and Injuries

Motor Development

Gross Motor Development Fine

Motor Development

Section 2: cognitive development

Theories of Cognitive Development

Concrete Operations

Information Processing

Intelligence and Intelligence Tests

Learning the Cognitive Skills of School: Reading and Mathematics

Language Development

Vocabulary, Grammar, and Pragmatics


School in Middle Childhood

Cultural Variations in School Experiences

Learning the Cognitive Skills of School: Reading and Mathematics

Section 3: emotional and social development

Emotional and Self-Development

Smooth Sailing: Advances in Emotional Self-Regulation


Gender Development

The Social and Cultural Contexts of Middle Childhood

Family Relations

Friends and Peers


Media Use

Summing Up

Cultural Focus: School Socialization in Guatemala

Historical Focus: Work Among British Children in the 19th Century

Research Focus: TV or Not TV

Chapter 8: Adolescence

Section 1: physical development

The Metamorphosis: Biological Changes of Puberty

The Physical Changes of Puberty

The Timing of Puberty

Cultural Responses: Puberty Rituals

Health Issues in Adolescence

Eating Disorders

Substance Use

Section 2: cognitive development

Piaget’s Theory of Formal Operations

Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning

Critiques of Piaget’s Theory of Formal Operations

Other Changes in Adolescent Thinking

Information Processing: Selective Attention and Metamemory

Social Cognition: The Imaginary Audience and the Personal Fable

Culture and Cognition

Adolescent Education and Work

Schools: Secondary Education around the World

Adolescent Work

Section 3: emotional and social development

Emotional and Self-Development

Emotionality in Adolescence: Storm and Stress?

Self-Development in Adolescence

Gender Intensification

Cultural Beliefs: Morality and Religion

Moral Development

Religious Beliefs

The Social and Cultural Contexts of Adolescence

Family Relationships

Peers and Friends

Love and Sexuality

Media Use

Problems and Resilience

Crime and Delinquency


Resilience in Adolescence

Summing Up

CULTURAL FOCUS: Apprenticeships in Europe

Historical Focus: From Fasting Saints to Anorexic Girls

RESEARCH FOCUS: The Daily Rhythms of Adolescents’ Family Lives

Chapter 9: Emerging Adulthood

Section 1: Physical Development

The Emergence of Emerging Adulthood

Five Features

The Cultural Context of Emerging Adulthood

Physical Changes of Emerging Adulthood

The Peak of Physical Functioning

Sleep Patterns and Deficits

Risk Behavior and Health Issues

Injuries and Fatalities: Automobile Accidents

Substance Use and Abuse

Section 2: Cognitive Development

Postformal Thinking


Reflective Judgment

Tertiary Education: College, University, and Training Programs

Cultural Variations in Tertiary Education

The Benefits of Tertiary Education

Section 3: Emotional and Social Development

Emotional and Self-Development


Identity Development

Gender Development: Cultural Beliefs and Stereotypes

Cultural Beliefs

Religious Development

Political Development

The Social and Cultural Contexts of Emerging Adulthood

Family Relationships


Love and Sexuality

Finding Adult Work

Social Uses of Media

Summing Up

Cultural Focus: The Young Men of Truk Island

Historical Focus: Gender and Cognitive Development in Emerging Adulthood

RESEARCH FOCUS: Graduated Driver Licensing


Practice Tests Answer Key




Name Index

Subject Index

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