China's Maritime Gray Zone Operations

China's Maritime Gray Zone Operations


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China's maritime "gray zone" operations represent a new challenge for the U.S. Navy and the sea services of our allies, partners, and friends in maritime East Asia. There, Beijing is waging what some Chinese sources term a "war without gunsmoke." Already winning in important areas, China could gain far more if left unchecked. One of China's greatest advantages thus far has been foreign difficulty in understanding the situation, let alone determining an effective response. With contributions from some of the world's leading subject matter experts, this volume aims to close that gap by explaining the forces and doctrines driving China's paranaval expansion, operating in the "gray zone" between war and peace.

The book covers China's major maritime forces beyond core gray-hulled Navy units, with particular focus on China's second and third sea forces: the "white-hulled" Coast Guard and "blue-hulled" Maritime Militia. Increasingly, these paranaval forces, and the "gray zone" in which they typically operate, are on the frontlines of China's seaward expansion.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781591146933
Publisher: Naval Institute Press
Publication date: 03/15/2019
Series: Studies in Chinese Maritime Development Series
Pages: 352
Sales rank: 590,310
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.30(d)

About the Author

Andrew S. Erickson is a professor of strategy in the Naval War College (NWC)'s China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI) and an associate in research at Harvard's Fairbank Center. The recipient of NWC's inaugural Research Excellence Award, he runs the China studies website

Ryan D. Martinson is an assistant professor at CMSI. He holds a master's degree from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University and a bachelor of science from Union College. Martinson has also studied at Fudan University, the Beijing Language and Culture University, and the Hopkins-Nanjing Center.

Table of Contents

List of Exhibits xi

Foreword Adm. Scott H. Swift, U.S. Navy (Ret.) xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

Introduction: "War without Gun Smoke": China's Paranaval Challenge in the Maritime Gray Zone Andrew S. Erickson Ryan D. Martinson 1

Part I Conceptualizing The Gray Zone

The Chinese Maritime Gray Zone: Definitions, Dangers, and the Complications of Rights Protection Operations Michael B. Petersen 15

Conceptualizing China's Maritime Gray Zone Operations Peter A. Dutton 30

Is the Maritime Militia Prosecuting a Peoples War at Sea? Dale C. Rielage Austin M. Strange 38

When Gray Zone Meets Black Letter: China's Paranaval Strategy and International Law Jonathan G. Odom 52

Part II Chinas Coast Guard and The Gray Zone

Organizing for the Gray Zone: Assessing the Rights Protection Capabilities of the New China Coast Guard Lyle J. Morris 77

Militarizing Coast Guard Operations in the Maritime Gray Zone Ryan D. Martinson 92

China Maritime Law Enforcement Surface Platforms: Order of Battle, Capabilities, and Trends Joshua Hickey Andrew S. Erickson Henry Holst 108

Part III Chinas Maritime Militia and The Gray Zone

Rights Protection versus Warfighting: Organizing the Maritime Militia for Peace and War Morgan Clemens Michael Weber 135

China's Maritime Militia and Reconnaissance-Strike Operations Mark A. Stokes 155

Gray Forces in Blue Territory: The Grammar of Chinese Maritime Militia Gray Zone Operations Conor M. Kennedy 168

Part IV Near Seas Gray Zone Scenarios

South China Sea: Assessing Chinese Paranaval Behavior within the Nine-Dash Line Bonnie S. Glaser Matthew P. Funaiole 189

China's Maritime Gray Zone Operations in the East China Sea and Japan's Response Adam P. Liff 207

The East China Sea: Future Trends, Scenarios, and Responses Katsuya Yamamoto 232

Part V Gray Zone Policy Challenges and Recommendations

The Time Factor in Maritime Gray Zone Operations Tomohtsa Takei 245

The Role of Deterrence in Responding to Chinese Gray Zone Campaigns Michael Mazarr 255

Vietnam and the Philippines as Case Studies in Dispute Management with China Bernard Moreland 281

Conclusion. Options for the Definitive Use of U.S. Sea Power in the Gray Zone Ryan D. Martinson Andrew S. Erickson 291

List of Acronyms 303

About the Contributors 307

Index 309

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