China's maritime "gray zone" operations represent a new challenge for the U.S. Navy and the sea services of our allies, partners, and friends in maritime East Asia. There, Beijing is waging what some Chinese sources term a "war without gunsmoke." Already winning in important areas, China could gain far more if left unchecked. One of China's greatest advantages thus far has been foreign difficulty in understanding the situation, let alone determining an effective response. With contributions from some of the world's leading subject matter experts, this volume aims to close that gap by explaining the forces and doctrines driving China's paranaval expansion, operating in the "gray zone" between war and peace.
The book covers China's major maritime forces beyond core gray-hulled Navy units, with particular focus on China's second and third sea forces: the "white-hulled" Coast Guard and "blue-hulled" Maritime Militia. Increasingly, these paranaval forces, and the "gray zone" in which they typically operate, are on the frontlines of China's seaward expansion.
About the Author
Andrew S. Erickson is a professor of strategy in the Naval War College (NWC)'s China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI) and an associate in research at Harvard's Fairbank Center. The recipient of NWC's inaugural Research Excellence Award, he runs the China studies website www.andrewerickson.com.
Ryan D. Martinson is an assistant professor at CMSI. He holds a master's degree from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University and a bachelor of science from Union College. Martinson has also studied at Fudan University, the Beijing Language and Culture University, and the Hopkins-Nanjing Center.
Table of Contents
List of Exhibits xi
Foreword Adm. Scott H. Swift, U.S. Navy (Ret.) xiii
Introduction: "War without Gun Smoke": China's Paranaval Challenge in the Maritime Gray Zone Andrew S. Erickson Ryan D. Martinson 1
Part I Conceptualizing The Gray Zone
The Chinese Maritime Gray Zone: Definitions, Dangers, and the Complications of Rights Protection Operations Michael B. Petersen 15
Conceptualizing China's Maritime Gray Zone Operations Peter A. Dutton 30
Is the Maritime Militia Prosecuting a Peoples War at Sea? Dale C. Rielage Austin M. Strange 38
When Gray Zone Meets Black Letter: China's Paranaval Strategy and International Law Jonathan G. Odom 52
Part II Chinas Coast Guard and The Gray Zone
Organizing for the Gray Zone: Assessing the Rights Protection Capabilities of the New China Coast Guard Lyle J. Morris 77
Militarizing Coast Guard Operations in the Maritime Gray Zone Ryan D. Martinson 92
China Maritime Law Enforcement Surface Platforms: Order of Battle, Capabilities, and Trends Joshua Hickey Andrew S. Erickson Henry Holst 108
Part III Chinas Maritime Militia and The Gray Zone
Rights Protection versus Warfighting: Organizing the Maritime Militia for Peace and War Morgan Clemens Michael Weber 135
China's Maritime Militia and Reconnaissance-Strike Operations Mark A. Stokes 155
Gray Forces in Blue Territory: The Grammar of Chinese Maritime Militia Gray Zone Operations Conor M. Kennedy 168
Part IV Near Seas Gray Zone Scenarios
South China Sea: Assessing Chinese Paranaval Behavior within the Nine-Dash Line Bonnie S. Glaser Matthew P. Funaiole 189
China's Maritime Gray Zone Operations in the East China Sea and Japan's Response Adam P. Liff 207
The East China Sea: Future Trends, Scenarios, and Responses Katsuya Yamamoto 232
Part V Gray Zone Policy Challenges and Recommendations
The Time Factor in Maritime Gray Zone Operations Tomohtsa Takei 245
The Role of Deterrence in Responding to Chinese Gray Zone Campaigns Michael Mazarr 255
Vietnam and the Philippines as Case Studies in Dispute Management with China Bernard Moreland 281
Conclusion. Options for the Definitive Use of U.S. Sea Power in the Gray Zone Ryan D. Martinson Andrew S. Erickson 291
List of Acronyms 303
About the Contributors 307