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China's Response to the West: A Documentary Survey, 1839-1923, With a New Preface / Edition 2

China's Response to the West: A Documentary Survey, 1839-1923, With a New Preface / Edition 2

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The present confrontation of Communist China and the United States, on which the future of peace in Asia hinges, is merely the latest phase in a continuing historical process—the remaking of China's ancient society under the stimulus of Western contact. How does it happen that a century of foreign trade and missionary evangelism, of modern education and the training of Chinese students in Western ways, has now resulted in a seeming rejection of the West? What has been the real nature of "China's response to the West" during the past century of our contact?

This volume gives the first inside account, on so broad a scale, of how China's leaders reacted to the invasion of Western arms and goods, persons and ideas, during the three generations from the Opium War to the rise of the Kuomintang. In 28 chapters, with translations of 65 key documents, the authors trace the stages by which the scholar-officials of the Middle Kingdom were brought to recognize successively the need for Western arms to defend their country, Western technology for making arms, modern science to support technology, its application in modern industry to strengthen the nation, and all the attendant new ideas which led them eventually into great movements for institutional reform, political revolution, and ideological reconstruction.

From the famous Commissioner un's first study of Western geography during his anti-opium crusade, through the efforts of Li Hungchang and others at "self-strengthening" by industrialization, down to the critical thought of Dr. Hu Shih and the eclecticism of Sun Yat-sen in the early 20th century, the writings of China's leaders ring the changes on a central theme how to remake their heritage and create a modern nation capable of meeting the West on equal terms. The provincial viceroys, the Reformers of 1898, the Boxers in 1900, the old Empress Dowager, and the eager students studying abroad, each in their own way, all grapple with this absorbing problem. The varied Chinese responses to the West in the formative century here analyzed give us a new insight into the springs of social action among one-fifth of mankind.

The companion volume, for the research specialist, provides Notes and Sources, Bibliography, and a Glossary of Chinese names and terms, essential bases for further exploration of this new field.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780674120259
Publisher: Harvard
Publication date: 12/19/1979
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 308
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.65(d)

About the Author

John King Fairbank was Francis Lee Higginson Professor of History and Director of the East Asian Research Center at Harvard University.

Table of Contents

Reigns of the Ch'ing (Manchu) Dynasty


1. Introduction

2. Some Elements in the Chinese Intellectual Tradition

Some Early Ch'ing "Nationalist" Thinkers

The Early Jesuit Influence in China

The Attitude of the Ch'ing Court toward the Westerners


3. Commissioner Lin's Program for Meeting British Aggression

Doc. 1. Lin Tse-hsu's Moral Advice to Queen Victoria, 1839

Doc. 2. A Letter of Lin Tse-hsu Recognizing Western Military Superiority, 1842

Doc. 3. Wei Yuan's Statement of a Policy for Maritime Defense, 1842

Doc. 4. Cantonese Denunciation of the British, 1841

4. The Policy of Conciliation

Doc. 5. Ch'i-ying's Method for Handling the Barbarians, 1844

Doc. 6. Hsü Chi-yu's Acceptance of Western Geography, 1848

5. The Emergence of the Theory of Self-Strengthening

Prince Kung and the Tsungli Yamen

Doc. 7. The New Foreign Policy of January 1861

Feng Kuei-fen and his Essays

Doc. 8. On the Adoption of Western Knowledge

Doc. 9. On the Manufacture of Foreign Weapons

Doc. 10. On the Better Control of the Barbarians

The Taiping Rebels' Interest in Modernization

Doc. 11. Hung Jen-kan's Proposals, 1859


6. Tseng Kuo-fan's Attitude toward Westerners and their Machinery

Doc. 12. Excerpts from Tseng's Letters, 1862

Doc. 13. Founding the Shanghai Arsenal

Doc. 14. Tseng's Views on Treaty Revision, 1867

7. Li Hung-chang and the Use of Western Arms

Doc. 15. Li's Letter to Tseng Kuo-fan on the Ever-Victorious Army, February 1863

Doc. 16. Li's Recommendation of Western Military Methods, June 1863

Doc. 17. The Tsungli Yamen Memorial of June 1863 on China's Defensive Strategy

8. Institutions for Linguistic and Scientific Studies (The T'ung-wen Kuan)

Doc. 18. Li i-Hung-chang's Support of Western Studies, 1863

Doc. 19. Wo-jen's Objection to Western Learning, 1867

Doc. 20. The Tsungli Yamen's Rebuttal, 1867

9. Tso Tsung-t'ang and the Faochow Shipyard

Doc. 21. Tso's Plans of 1866


10. The Problem of Leadership: Personalities and Institutions

Li Hung-chang and his Subordinates

The Empress Dowager's Influence

Doc. 22. Wen-hsiang's Warning of Disaster, 1874

11. Training Students Abroad

The Educational Mission to the United States

Doc. 23. The Proposal of Tseng and Li in 1871

Doc. 24. Letters of Li Hung-chang concerning the End of the Mission, 1880-1881

Students in Europe

Doc. 25. Ma Chien-chung's Report on his Studies in France, 1877

12. Diplomatic Missions Abroad

Doc. 26. Prince Kong's Discovery of International Law, 1864

Doc. 27. A Letter of Kuo Sung-tao from London, 1877

Doc. 28. Tseng Chi-tse's Account of his Audience with the Empress Dowager, 1878

13. Problems of the Industrialization Effort

Doe. 29. Li Hung-chang's Defense of Building Steamships, 1872

The Principle of "Government-supervision and Merchant-operation"

Doc. 30. The Criticisms of Cheng Kuan-ying, c. 1892

The Debate over Railroads

Doc. 31. Shen Pao-chen's Purchase of the Shanghai-Wusung Railway, 1876

Doc. 32. Hsueh Fu-ch'eng's Support of Railroad Building, 1878

14. The Attempt at a Positive Foreign Policy

Doc. 33. Kuo Sung-tao on the Futility of a War Policy, 1884

Building a Modern Navy

Doc. 34. Chang P'ei-lun's Proposal of 1884

The Failure at Self-Strengthening

Doc. 35. Li Hung-chang's Conversation with ItO Hirobumi, 1895

The Alliance with Russia

Doc. 36. Liu K'un-i's Secret Proposal, July 1895

Doc. 37. Chang Chih-tung's Memorial of August 1895

Doc. 38. Text of the Sino-Russian Secret Treaty of 1896


15. Promoters of Institutional Change

The Missionary Influence

Early Chinese Advocates of Reform

Doc. 39. Writings of Wang T'ao

Doc. 40. Essays of Hsueh Fu-ch'eng

16. K'ang Yu-wei and Some of his Associates

Doc. 41. K'ang Yu-wei's Statement for the "Society for the Study of

Self-strengthening," 1895

Doc. 42. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao on Reform, 1896

Doc. 43. T'an Ssu-t'ung on the Need for Complete Westernization

Doc. 44. Wang K'ang-nien on Democracy

17. The Reform Program of Chang Chih-tung

Doc. 45. Selections from Chang's "Exhortation to Study," 1898

18. The Failure of 1898

The Court and the Emperor

Doc. 46. K'ang Yu-wei's Conversation with the Emperor, June 1898

Doc. 47. ItO's Conversation with the Emperor, September 1898

The Conservative Opposition

19. The Boxer Uprising

Doc. 48. Proclamations of the Boxers

Doc. 49. Memorials of Anti-Boxer Martyrs, 1900


20. The Conservative Reform Movement

The Post-Borer Program

Doc. 50. The Joint Proposals of Liu K'un-i and Chang Chih-tung, 1901

Educational Reform

Doc. 51. A Memorial of Chang Chih-tung and Yuan Shih-k'ai Urging Abolition of the Old Examinations, 1903


Doc. 52. A Report on Constitutional Governments Abroad, 1906

Yuan Shih-k'ai and the Modern Army

21. Economic Development

Doc. 53. Sheng 1-Hsuan-huai's Argument for 1896

Doc. 54. Economic Views of Chang Chien

22. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and Nationalism

Doc, 55. "The Renovation of the People" by Liang Ch'ich'ao, 1902

23. Sun Yat-sen's Early Revolutionary Program

Doc. 56. The Manifesto of the T'ung-meng.hui, 1905


24. The Search for New Principles

The Variety of the New Thought

Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei and Freedom in Education

Doc. 57. Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei's Views on the Aims of Education, 1912

Doc. 58. Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei's Policy for Peking University, 1919

25. Early Converts to Marxism

Doc. 59. Ch'en Tu-hsiu's "Call to Youth," 1915

Doc. 60. Li Ta-chao, "The Victory of Bolshevism," November 15, 1918

Doc. 61. Ch'en Tu-hsiu's Argument for Historical Materialism, 1923

26. Hu Shih and Pragmatism in China

Doc. 62. Hu Shih, "The Significance of the New Thought," 1919

Doc. 63. Hu Shih, "On the Literary Revolution," 1922

27. Sun Yat-sen's Reorientation of the Revolution

Doc. 64. Sun Yat-sen's Theory of Knowledge and Action, 1919

Doc. 65. Sun Yat-sen's Adoption of the Russian Party System, 1923

28. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao's Review of China's Progress, 1873-1922

Postface. A Further Approach to the Problem


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