Chinese Maps: Images of All under Heaven by Richard Joseph Smith, Richard J. Smith
For nearly two thousand years, the Chinese Emperor proclaimed himself ruler of 'All Under Heaven'. In the eyes of the Chinese leaders, all the peoples of the known world were the Emperor's subjects, and the empire's boundaries stretched to the end of the earth. Maps were used to support this vision. Charts of foreign lands and images of the 'barbarians' that populated them presented the world as the Chinese perceived it: with the Middle Kingdom as lord and other states as vassals paying tribute to it.