Chinese Medicine and Healing: An Illustrated History available in Hardcover
This illustrated history explores the emergence and development of a wide range of health interventions, including propitiation of disease-inflicting spirits, divination, vitality-cultivating meditative disciplines, herbal remedies, pulse diagnosis, and acupuncture. The authors investigate processes that contribute to historical change, such as competition between different types of practitionershamans, Daoist priests, Buddhist monks, scholar physicians, and even government officials. Accompanying vignettes and illustrations bring to life such diverse arenas of health care as childbirth in the Tang period, Yuan state-established medical schools, fertility control in the Qing, and the search for sexual potency in the People’s Republic.
The two final chapters illustrate Chinese healing modalities across the globe and address the challenges they have posed as alternatives to biomedical standards of training and licensure. The discussion includes such far-reaching examples as Chinese treatments for diphtheria in colonial Australia and malaria in Africa, the invention of ear acupuncture by the French and its worldwide dissemination, and the varying applications of acupuncture from Germany to Argentina and Iraq.
|Product dimensions:||6.40(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.50(d)|
About the Author
Linda L. Barnes is Director of the Masters Program in Medical Anthropology and Cross-Cultural Practice, Division of Graduate Medical Sciences, at Boston University School of Medicine. She holds a joint appointment as Professor in the Department of Family Medicine at BUSM and in the Division of Religious and Theological Studies at Boston University.
Constance A. Cook is Professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures at Lehigh University.
Andrew Edmund Goble is Associate Professor of History at the University of Oregon.
Soyoung Suh is Assistant Professor of History at Dartmouth College.
Paize Keulemans is Assistant Professor of East Asian Studies at Princeton University.
Read an Excerpt
From Chapter Eight: The People’s Republic of China: 1949-Present
Folk Nutritional Therapy in Modern China
Chinese folk nutrition in recent centuries drew on the idea that foods could be heating, cooling, wetting, drying, strengthening, or cleansing. The most important dimensions were heating (re) and cooling (liang; a few foods were cold, han). These concepts developed from a medieval fusion of Chinese ideas of yang and yin, and Hippocratic-Galenic humoral medicine introduced from the Near East (“Galenos” is referenced in one fourteenth-century text). Experience of famine also reinforced the realities of food energy and its importance in maintaining body heat. More recent fieldwork in southeast China shows that managing diet remains the first recourse when responding to illness (Anderson 1988, 1996).
Heating foods included those that were high-calorie, subjected to high heat in cooking, spicy or bitter, or “hot” in color (red, orange). Cooling foods were low-calorie, watery, soothing or sour in taste, or “cool” in color (whitish, green). Cooked grain was considered perfectly balanced, serving as a reference point. In contrast, cool foods treated hot illnesses, which involved sores, reddening, rashes, dry skin, and sore throat—symptoms similar to those of a burn (and illnesses often recognized by biomedicine as involving vitamin C deficiency). Green vegetables were among the most commonly used.
Typical cool conditions involved low body temperature, chills, pallor, weakness, watery eliminations, and symptoms resembling those of hypothermia. Anemia most commonly fit these criteria, as did tuberculosis and recovery from childbirth. Treatment involved easily digested red and organ meats, ginger, Chinese liquor, wolfthorn berries (gou ji zi, Lycium chinense), rich in vitamins and minerals, and similar foods. Such interventions addressed the anemia and alleviated conditions related to excess cool conditions. Heating foods were often eaten simply to maintain body heat. Everyone knew, for example, that eating baked goods or fatty meat on a winter day would keep one warmer than would a diet of vegetables.
Strengthening (bupin, lit. “supplementing” or “patching things”) foods were usually easily digested, nutrient-rich protein foods, like the dark meat of poultry, organ meats, mushrooms, and several herbal foods (Hu 2005). Some specifically strengthened particular organs—usually deriving from organs themselves. For example, pork lungs helped human lungs, liver helped liver, and penises of harem-keeping animals like seals or deer supplemented human male genitalia. Sometimes resemblance was enough: walnut meats strengthened the brain. Red liquids, especially port wine, strengthen the blood. Sometimes, a red fruit like red jujubes, did the same. Black items (from black dog meat to stout beer) often strengthened the body. Food with a gelatinous texture was thought to have special qi and was valued for replenishing yang. Such foods, if high in protein and minerals, were particularly valued: birds’ nests, rare fungi or sea cucumbers, as were less common game animals from tigers to vultures.
Bland to slightly sharp herbs were cleansing (jing), clearing away undesirable moisture, phlegm, impurities, and contamination in the body. Some contained chemicals recognized in biomedicine as antibiotic, astringent, or diuretic. Other foods were “poisonous” (du), in the sense that they potentiated poisons in the body. For example, although live male poultry kept away demons and had other ritual functions, when dead they were thought to exacerbate cancer.
Table of Contents
Introduction Linda L. Barnes TJ Hinrichs 1
1 The Pre-Han Period Constance A. Cook 5
Oracle Bones of the Late Shang Dynasty (ca. Thirteenth-Eleventh Centuries B.C.E.) Ken Takashima 8
The Dreams of the Lord of Jin Constance A. Cook 18
The Hexagram Gu Xing Wen 20
2 The Han Period Vivienne Lo 31
The Treatment of Women Lisa Raphals 42
A Late Han Adept TJ Hinrichs 53
3 The Period of Division and the Tang Period Fan Ka-wai 65
Shamans Lin Fu-shih 67
Prerequisites for Treating Childlessness Jessy J. C. Choo 70
Nurturing the Fetus Sabine Wilms 71
Childbirth Jen-der Lee 73
Ingestion of the Five Sprouts Gil Raz 82
The Celestial Brigand and Illness Donald Harper 84
Sun Simiao Victor Xiong 87
4 The Song and Jin Periods TJ Hinrichs 97
Plague God Cults Paul R. Katz 119
Legendary Daoist Women Catherine Despeux 121
Song Printed Medical Works and Mediveal Japanese Medicine Andrew Edmund Goble 123
5 The Yuan and Ming Periods Angela Ki Che Leung 129
Arabic Medicine in China Paul D. Buell 132
Tuê Tinh-Vietnamese Monk-Physician at the Ming Court C. Michele Thompson 134
A Choson Korea Medical Synthesis: Ho Chun's Precious Mirror of Eastern Medicine Soyoung Suh 137
Medical Schools and the Temples of the Three Progenitors Reiko Shinno 140
Children's Medicine Hsiung Ping-chen 145
Li Shizhen Kenneth J. Hammond 151
Variolation Chang Chia-Feng 157
6 The Qing Period Yi-Li Wu 161
Fertility Control and Demographics Francesca Bray 162
Female Alchemy Elena Valussi 167
The Nineteenth-Century Bubonic Plague Epidemic Carol Benedict 171
The Emperor's Physician Chang Che-chia 175
The Jianghu Performance of Medical and Martial Arts in Late Imperial Vernacular Fiction Paize Keulemans 183
Eighteenth-Century European Views of Gongfu (Kungfu) Linda L. Barnes 191
The "Warm Diseases" Current of Learning Marta E. Hanson 204
7 The Republic of China Bridie J. Andrews 209
Dissection in China Larissa Heinrich 220
Neurasthenia (shenjing shuairuo) in China Hugh Shapiro 227
Advertising Hygienic Modernity Ruth Rogaski 232
8 The People's Republic of China Volker Scheid 239
Propaganda and Health Stefan R. Landsberger 243
Folk Nutritional Therapy in Modern China Eugene N. Anderson 259
Inventing Qigong David Ownby 264
Chinese Medicine as Popular Knowledge in Urban China Judith Farquhar 272
Seal Penis, Viagra, and Sexual Potency in Post-Mao China Everett Zhang 275
Religious Healing in the People's Republic of China Thomas DuBois 277
SARS, Bird Flu, and Media Transparency in China Hepeng Jia 280
9 A World of Chinese Medicine and Healing: Part One Linda L. Barnes 284
Acupuncture in Argentina Betina Freidin 294
Acupuncture in Germany Gunnar Stollberg 313
Textuality and Truth in U.S. Chinese Medicine Education Sonya Pritzker 318
Acupuncture in Iraq Lazgeen Ahmad (Interview by Douglas Newton) 322
Get on Track with Subhealth: Changing Trajectories of "Preventive Medicine" Mei Zhan 325
Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trials and Chinese Medicine Ted J. Kaptchuk 329
10 A World of Chinese Medicine and Healing: Part Two Linda L. Barnes 334
Chinese Medicine in Africa Elisabeth Hsu 335
"Trialing" Chinese Medicine in Colonial Australia Rey Tiquia 343
TCM and Chinese Immigrants with Tuberculosis in New York City's Chinatown: A Case Study Ming Ho 347
Is Vietnamese Medicine Chinese Medicine? Laurence Monnais 350
Visualizing Qi Nancy N. Chen 356
Taiji in America Elijah Siegler 359