Chinese Scholars on Inner Asia

Chinese Scholars on Inner Asia

by Xin Luo (Editor)

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Overview

In Chinese Scholars on Inner Asia, some of the best work of the past half-century by leading Chinese scholars on the history and peoples of Inner Asia is presented for the first time in English. The fifteen essays were selected by a team of contemporary Chinese specialists to represent the unique and important contributions made to the field of Inner Asian studies by Chinese scholarship. In addition, many of the essays have been revised and enhanced by their authors especially for this volume. The wide range of topics covered includes new evidence from the Turfan documents on the Turks and on Chinese military activities in Central Asia, appellations of Xiongnu Shanyu titles, the Sogdians in China, the religious background to the An Lushan rebellion, the establishment of the Khitan state, the cultural anthropology of the Khitan naming system, the Kirghiz and neighboring tribes,the Kerait Kingdom, the geography of Turkestan in the Yuan dynasty, the Mongol bo'ol, and the historical development of Manchu ethnic identity.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780933070585
Publisher: Sinor Research Institute of Inner Asian Studies
Publication date: 01/01/2012
Series: Indiana University Uralic and Altaic
Pages: 707
Product dimensions: 6.40(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.90(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Zhu Yuqi is Chief Editor of LIterature and History of the Western Regions and Professor at Peking University.

Andrew Eisenberg is author of Kingship in Early Medieval China and Professor at Northeastern Illinois University.

Read an Excerpt

Chinese Scholars on Inner Asia


By Lou Xin, Roger Covey

Indiana University Press

Copyright © 2012 Indiana University
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-933070-58-5



CHAPTER 1

Turks in the Gaochang Provisioning Texts

Wu Yugui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]


Six of the nine provisioning texts excavated from the number 307, 329, and 517 Qu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] family Gaochang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] era tombs in Astana [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Turfan had content related to the Turks. The people to whom who provisions were provided included Turkic emissaries of Abo Kehan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Apa Qaghan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), Tanhan Kehan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Tanhan Qaghan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), Shuluo Kehan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Chuluo Qaghan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), Nanxiang Kehan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (the Qaghan of the Southern Wing), and Beixiang Kehan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (the Qaghan of the Northern Wing). A "nephew" is also mentioned, along with the names of iron and gold masters of the Turkic Qaghan. Such records in these texts are not without value to the study of Turkic history and the relationship between Gaochang and the Turks. This paper aims at making preliminary explanations of issues related to the Turks found in these texts.


1

In the second, third, and fourth volumes of Documents Unearthed in Turfan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] there are over twenty texts whose contents are related to provisioning, but there are great differences amongst those being provisioned, the contents of the provisioning, and the record-keeping formats. As many parts of the texts are missing, a clear categorization cannot be made. According to my preliminary investigations, the provisioning texts can be divided into two general categories. The first category of those being provisioned is complex, and, apart from guest emissaries, it includes those being provided with "shangxian" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [meaning unknown], those provided with "material for constructing steles," those provided with "garrison troops," etc. Many kinds of food were provided, and, apart from the staples of wheat flour, common millet, broomcom millet, and wheat bran, the texts also include foods such as meat, meat from animals not slaughtered, liver, lungs, sheep's heads, dates, and liquor, and even include records of everyday items such as drawn hemp, hair, camel fur, sheepskin, boots, and skirts. The second category of those being provisioned is rather uniform: the vast majority were guest emissaries and a few were refugees. The food provided was also basically limited to wheat flour, common millet, broomcom millet, and wheat bran. These types of texts are rather detailed on the matter of recording the food that was provided and usually divide the guest emissaries in attendance based on their status into three ranks (upper, middle, and lower). I believe that the second type of provisioning text may have been the provisioning record from a Gaochang guesthouse that received foreign emissaries. The content of the six texts related to the Turks that I discuss in this paper all belong to the second category of texts.

None of the six texts give their year. Tomb number 517 is a group burial tomb, and in it was found the Gaochang 31st Year of Yanchang (591) Zhang Yi's WifeMeng Gravestone [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (591) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the Gaochang 37th Year of Yanchang (597) Zhang Yi Epitaph [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (597) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The Gaochang 31st Year of Yanchang (unknown name) Burial Clothing and Objects Recorded [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was found by the female corpse, and the Gaochang 37th Year of Yanchang Wude Burial Clothing and Objects Record [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was found by the male corpse, and the years of the "clothing and objects records" and the epitaphs are the same. Tombs 307 and 329 did not include epitaphs, and the texts they contained did not state their year. Based on the tomb shapes, the unearthed texts, and the characteristics of the unearthed relics, the time of these two tombs can be determined as the late Qu family Gaochang period. Furthermore, the Firewood Cart Text Fragment [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was excavated from tomb number 307, and based on the phrase "the start of the eighth month of the leap year," it can be determined to be the ninth year of the Qu family Gaochang Yanshou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] reign period (632). Of the texts and objects from the three tombs, the earliest specific date is the 31st year of the Yanchang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] reign period (591), and the latest is the ninth year of the Yanshou reign period (632) – slightly later than the activities of the Turkic Qaghans mentioned in the provisioning texts. For reference, the following are a table of the number of times each Turkic Qaghan appears in these texts (table one) and a table comparing the years in which the Turkic Qaghans were active and the years given in the texts and objects excavated from the tombs (table two).

One problem that requires explanation is that there are no specific dates on the texts from tomb number 307, and the "explanatory notes" in Documents Unearthed in Turfan date the Firewood Cart Text Fragment to the ninth year of the Yanshou period [632], but according to the people that appear in the texts from tomb number 307, this tomb should date from roughly the same year as tomb number 517. There are three pieces of evidence for this:

First, Abo (Apa) Qaghan and Tanhan Qaghan are both seen in the Gaochang [??]shan Provisioning Record [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] from tomb number 307, and Tanhan Qaghan is also seen in the Gaochang Duzi Provisioning Record [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] from tomb number 517.

Second, line three from the Gaochang Huya Duzi Provisioning Record [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] from tomb number 307 says "[??] Huya Duzi provided fifteen jin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]" [a jin was a measure of weight, in the Tang dynasty equal to about 1.3 pounds], and the seventh line of the first section of the Gaochang [??]shan Provisioning Record says "Next Huya Duzi provided." The second line of the first section of Gaochang Duzi Provisioning Record from tomb number 517 says "[??]Duzi provided one hu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] four dou. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]" [a hu was a measure of capacity equal to about 1.7 bushels and was comprised of ten dou]. This "[??]Duzi" should be the "Huya Duzi" from tomb number 307, and the missing text before this "Duzi" should be "Huya" – the two are the same person.

Third, the sixth line of the second section of the Gaochang Zhufotu Provisioning Record from tomb number 307 mentions an individual called Mingwei [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Fonu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and the third line of the first section of the Gaochang Duzi Provisioning Record from tomb number 517 says "[??]Fonu." The missing text before Fonu here should be Mingwei, and this should be the same person as the Mingwei Fonu of the tomb number 307 text.

As Tanhan Qaghan, Huya Duzi, and Mingwei Fonu appear at the same time in the texts from tombs number 307 and 517, we have dated both tombs as belonging to the same period.

As can be seen from the above tables, the dates on the excavated texts and objects from the tombs are four to 49 years later than those given in historical materials. If we ignore the dating to the ninth year of the Yanshou reign period by the text's editors and only look at the epitaphs (or records of clothing and objects), then the dates of the Turkic Qaghan activities mentioned in the texts are only four to fourteen years earlier than those of epitaphs. The tomb texts belonged to the tomb occupants before they died, so it should be reasonable that they give earlier dates.


2

Abo (Apa) Qaghan appears twice in the texts, Tanhan Qaghan appears four times, and Shuluo (Chuluo) Qaghan appears once. These three Qaghans can all be found in Chinese historical records and are important figures in Turkic history. The following is an explanation of these figures.

Records of Apa Qaghan can mainly be found in the History of the Sui: Account of the Turks [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Apa was also called Daluobian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and was the son of the great Turkic Qaghan of the Eastern Turks, Muqan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Qaghan (553-572). In 572 Muqan Qaghan died, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Taspar [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Qaghan. In 581 Taspar Qaghan died, and the four sons of Eastern Turkic Qaghans (Yixiji [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Qaghan's son Shetu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] who became Shabolüe [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Qaghan; Muqan Qaghan's son Daluobian who became Apa Qaghan; Taspar Qaghan's son Anluo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and Rudan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Qaghan's son Buli [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) began to contest for the throne. In the end Yixiji's son Shetu won out, and was named Shabolüe Qaghan. As a conciliatory gesture, Shabolüe Qaghan made Muqan's son, Daluobian, Apa Qaghan.

In 582 Shabolüe Qaghan led the Turkic army in a split invasion of the Sui Dynasty, and Apa Qaghan led the forces through Liangzhou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The next year the Sui army led an eight-pronged counterattack, and Apa met the Sui Marshal [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Dou Rongding [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Liangzhou. Dou Rongding's Deputy General [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Zhangsun Sheng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] took advantage of the conflict between Apa and Shabolüe, and he convinced Apa to side with the emperor and unite with Tardu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to increase his strength. Apa agreed and sent an emissary to the court. Shabolüe Qaghan was subsequently defeated at the White Pass [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. After his defeat, he focused his anger on Apa for his duplicity and attacked Apa Qaghan in the Northern Capital thereby "completely subjugating his people and killing his mother." Apa had nowhere to return to, so he fled west to Tardu Qaghan, son of the Western Turk Istämi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

Once Apa Qaghan had fled to the Western Turks, the Turkic Qaghanate was struck by an internal struggle for leadership among the lesser Qaghans of the Tumen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] line, and a war broke out between the Eastern (Tumen) and Western (Istämi) Turks. Thereafter, under the support of the Western Turk Tardu Qaghan, Apa Qaghan "attacked Shetu in the east, and regained his old land." He held it until the seventh year of the Kaihuang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] reign period (587), when he was captured alive by Shabolüe Qaghan's successor, Bagha (Mohe) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Qaghan (Chuluohou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). The split between Apa Qaghan and Shabolüe Qaghan split the Eastern Turks into two, and this was a turning point in forming the long-term strife between the Eastern and Western Turks that was critical to their history. The third generation Apa Qaghan Chuluo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] took advantage of Tardu's loss north of the Gobi Desert, and, in what once was the area most of the Western Turks occupied, he forced Istämi's descendant Shekui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Qaghan to submit to him, which is why the History of the Sui calls the Apa line of Turks the "Western Turks." But it is worth pointing out that Apa Qaghan and Nili [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Qaghan of the Apa line were both under Tardu Qaghan and should have resided to the northwest of the leadership of the Turkic Qaghanate, which was an area roughly between Ötüken Mountains and the Altai Mountains. The period in which Apa Qaghan dispatched emissaries to Gaochang in the texts should be the third year of the Kaihuang reign period (583) to the seventh year (587), and, as we have seen from the above, this period conforms to the period of the epitaphs.

"Tanhan Qaghan" is written in two different ways in the Gaochang Duzi Provisioning Record, and both names refer to the same person. Two different characters for "han" (literally meaning "drought" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [written in the Gaochang texts as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] and "sweat" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) are often used interchangeably in Turfan texts, such as the line "one set of inner garments and undershirt" in the Gaochang Yihe Fourth Year (unknown name) Burial Clothing and Objects Record [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], in which the "drought" version is used, and the second line of the Gaochang Xia Village Family Person's Wheat Field Contract [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] that reads "if there is a drought," in which the "sweat" version is used. This means that this Tanhan Qaghan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] should be the same as the Tanhan Qaghan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] found in historical materials.

Tanhan Qaghan lived during the same period as Apa Qaghan. In 583 Apa Qaghan split with Shabolüe Qaghan, and because Tanhan Qaghan had a close relationship with Apa, he was expelled by Shabolüe, and he threw his lot in with Tardu Qaghan of the Western Turks. History of the Sui: Account of the Turks: "There also was Tanhan Qaghan, who had always gotten along well with Apa, and as Shabolüe took his people and expelled him, he fled in defeat to Tardu." This is the only time Tanhan Qaghan appears in historical materials.

Tanhan Qaghan and Apa Qaghan lived in the western region of the Eastern Turks, and the name Tanhan is related to the Tanhan Mountain north of Gaochang. History of the Sui: Account of Gaochang describes the Gaochang geography as: "To the north of (Gaochang) is a red stone mountain, and seventy li north of this mountain is Tanhan Mountain, which is covered in snow in the summer. To the north of this mountain is the region of the Tiele [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]." Tanhan Mountain is the present-day Bogda [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Mountain located in the eastern part of the Tianshan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Mountains in Xinjiang. The "Tiele region" refers to the Tiele tribe's occupancy of Tanhan Mountain in the first year of the Daye [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] reign period (605). Before the Daye reign period this region was controlled by the Turks. Tanhan Mountain may have received its name for being the grazing land of Tanhan Qaghan. Tanhan Mountain connects with Gaochang, and is easily accessible from there, so Tanhan Qaghan had close relationships with emissaries from Gaochang.

In the historical materials, Tanhan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is used in connection with names –apart from Tanhan Qaghan, there is also Yili [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Tanhan. Matsuda Toshio says, "In the History of the Sui: Account of the Turks, we have Tanhan Qaghan, and in the Old Tang History: Account of the Turks [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] there is a person named Yili Tanhan. The latter Tanhan likely stands for the official title tarqon (dagan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), and we cannot say with certainty that the former was the same character."

Note that tarqan is a Turkic official title, and can be seen in the Turkic stele Tonyukuk Inscription [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Kül Tegin Inscription [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Bilgä Qaghan Inscription [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and Ongin Inscription [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The word tarqan has a long history amongst the northern nomadic tribes; it was widely used, and its use varied greatly throughout time. The Rouran's [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tahan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the Turk and Uyghur dagan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the Mongolian darqan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are all different translations of tarqan. During the Tang Dynasty, apart from dagan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], there were translations such as daguan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], duogan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and dagan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Based on the opinion of China's Turkic language expert Geng Shimin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the word tanhan should be the translation of the Turkic word tamghan, and not tarqan, such as with the Turkic "isbara tamghan cur" and "bilga isbara tamghan tarqan," which Geng Shimin translates as "Shiboluo Tanhan Chuo" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and "Pijia Shiboluo Tanhan Dagan" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. This problem still awaits further study.

The word "Tanhan" (both variants) is mostly used as a Turkic name in Turfan texts, such as Tanhan Qaghan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Tanhan Tiqin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Tubie Tanhan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Zhiju Tanhan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Gugen Tanhan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Tanhan Daguan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and Tanhan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In Chinese histories Turkic people are often called by their official title, and while we still cannot determine the meaning of the word "tanhan," it is almost certain that it was an official Turkic title.

Shuluo Qaghan is the Qaghan Chuluo, the third generation of the Abo (Apa) lineage of the historical records. Chuluo Qaghan's full name was Nijue Chuluo Qaghan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; he was named Daman [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and his mother (Lady Xiang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) was Han Chinese.

In the seventh year of the Kaihuang reign period (587), Apa Qaghan was defeated north of the Gobi Desert, and his countrymen established Yangsuteqin's [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] son as Nili Qaghan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In the third year of the Renshou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] reign period (603), the Tiele tribes raised their armies against the Turks and defeated Nili Qaghan. The next year Nili Qaghan's son Chuluo Qaghan succeeded him. History of the Sui: Account of the Western Turks [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] systematically describes the affairs of Chuluo Qaghan; however it seems to be in error concerning the events surrounding Chuluo's succession. The record is as follows:

Daluobian [Apa Qaghan] was captured by Chuluohou, and the state established Yangsuteqin's son as Nili Qaghan. Apa died and was succeeded by his son Daman, named Nijue Chuluo Qaghan. His mother (Lady Xiang) was Han Chinese. She gave birth to Daman and Nili died, then remarried Nili's younger brother, Poshiteqin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. At the end of the Kaihuang reign period Poshi and Lady Xiang went to the court and were caught in the Tardu rebellion. They stayed in the capital, residing in Hong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] temple.

This passage has two suspicious places. The first is that from analyzing the context, "She gave birth to Daman and Nili died" stresses that her giving birth to Daman and Nili's death happened during a short span of time. The year of Nili's death is not specified in the histories. History of the Sui: Account of the Turks says, "In this year Nili Qaghan and Yabghu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] were defeated by the Tiele. Not long after the tribes led by Bujia [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] rebelled, and Bujia fled to the Tuyuhun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]." Bujia is Tardu Qaghan. The History of the Sui here goes from the first year of the Renshou reign period to the third year of the Daye reign period, so, from the content of the history, "this year" should be the first year of the Renshou reign period. However, the History of the Sui, chapter 51, Biography of Zhangsun Sheng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] says:

In the first year of the Renshou reign period ... Yang Su [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was commissioned to be the Commander-in-chief of the army [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Sheng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was the emissary to those who had surrendered, and Ran'gan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was sent to attack the North. In the second year the army once again attacked north of the river, and many of the commanders such as Sili Sijin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] refused to fight. Sheng and the Chief General Liang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ambushed them causing them to flee for over sixty li, and most of the enemy surrendered. Sheng then had Ran'gan dispatch emissaries to the Tiele and other tribes in the North to win them over. In the third year more than ten tribes including the Tiele [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Sijie [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Fuliju [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Hun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Husa [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Aba [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and Pugu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] all betrayed Tardu and surrendered. Tardu's people scattered, fleeing west to the Tuyuhun.


(Continues...)

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Table of Contents

Contents

Luo Xin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Introduction, xi,
Roger Covey A Note on the Translations, xix,
Wu Yugui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Turks in the Gaochang Provisioning Texts, 1,
Jiang Boqin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The Chinese Persia Expeditionary Force as Referenced in the Turfan Documents, 41,
Zhang Guangda [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The Nine Zhaowu Surnames (Sogdians) in the Six Hu Prefectures and Other Places in the Tang Dynasty, 59,
Rong Xinjiang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The Religious Background to the An Lushan Rebellion, 97,
Wang Xiaofu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The Establishment of the Khitan State and Uyghur Culture, 139,
LiuPujiang and Kang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The Forenames and Courtesy Names of the Khitans: The Father-Son Name Linkage System from the Perspective of Cultural Anthropology, 183,
Cai Meibiao [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Khitan Tribal Organization and the Birth of the Khitan State, 255,
Yekemingghadai Irinchin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Regarding the Mongol Bo 'ol in the 11th and 12th Centuries, 315,
Zhou Qingshu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] A Critical Examination of the Year of Birth of Chinggis Khan, 331,
Han Rulin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The Kirghiz and Neighboring Tribes in the Yuan Dynasty, 353,
Chen Dezhi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The Kerait Kingdom up to the Thirteenth Century, 411,
Liu Yingsheng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] A Study of Kusan Tarim in the Yuan Dynasty, 463,
Luo Feng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Liquor Still and Milk-Wine Distilling Technology in the Mongol-Yuan Period, 487,
Luo Xin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Reflections on the Appellations of Xiongnu Shanyu Titles, 519,
Yao Dali [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] From Tribal Confederacy to Ethnic Community: On Historical Changes in Manchu Identity before the Mid-Qing, 547,
Maps, 605,
Chinese-language Primary Sources Cited, 613,
Bibliography, 625,
Index, 669,
Contributors, 703,

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