Chipless RFID Reader Architecture

Chipless RFID Reader Architecture

by Nemai Chandra Karmakar

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781608075614
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 07/28/2013
Pages: 300
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 10.20(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xxi

Foreword xxiii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Chipless RFID 1

1.2 Chipless RFID Tag Reader 6

1.3 Executive Summaries 7

1.3.1 Operating Principle of Chipless RFID Systems 7

1.3.2 Reader Architecture for Chipless RFID Systems 8

1.3.3 Physical Layer Development of Chipless RFID Tag Readers 9

1.4 Conclusion 11

Questions 12

Qualitative and Descriptive Questions 12

Numerical Questions 13

References 13

Chapter 2 Chipless RFID System Operating Principles 15

2.1 Chipless RFID Tags 15

2.1.1 Time Domain (TD) Based Chipless RFID Tags 16

2.1.2 Frequency Domain Based Tags 20

2.1.3 Image Based Tags 28

2.1.4 Hybrid Domain Chipless RFID Tags 29

2.1.5 Summary of the Review of Chipless RFID Tags 30

2.2 Multiresonator Based Chipless RFID Tag 31

2.2.1 Operating Principle for Reading of Multiresonator Based Chipless RFID Tags 33

2.3 Methods for Reading RFID Tags 35

2.3.1 Reading Time Domain Based Chipless RFID Tags 36

2.3.2 Reading Frequency Domain Based Chipless RFID Tags 36

2.3.3 Reading Hybrid Domain Based Chipless RFID Tags 37

2.3.4 SAR Based Reading Process 37

2.4 Conclusion 38

Questions 39

References 39

Chapter 3 Chipless RFID Readers 43

3.1 Introduction to Chipless RFID Readers 43

3.2 Chipless RFID Reader System Architectures 44

3.2.1 General Overview of Chipless RFID Reader Architecture 44

3.3 Chipless RFID Readers and Tag Reading Techniques 47

3.3.1 Time Domain Readers and Tag Reading Techniques 48

3.3.2 Frequency Domain Readers and Tag Reading Techniques 50

3.3.3 Hybrid Domain Readers and Tag Reading Techniques 56

3.3.4 SAR Based Readers and Tag Reading Techniques 57

3.4 Limitations and Issues with Current Chipless RFID Readers 60

3.4.1 Cost of Readers 60

3.4.2 Read Range 61

3.4.3 Tag Reading Speed 61

3.4.4 Anticollision, Error Correction, and Data Integrity 62

3.4.5 Orientation of the Tag 63

3.5 Conclusion 63

Questions 63

References 64

Chapter 4 Frequency Domain Based RFID Reader Development 67

4.1 Introduction 67

4.1.1 Organization of This Chapter 67

4.2 Operation of Frequency Domain Based Chipless RFID Readers 69

4.2.1 Detecting the Features of the Frequency Signatures of Chipless Tags: Type-1 Readers 71

4.2.2 Recovering the Frequency Signature of Chipless Tags: Type-2 Readers 76

4.3 Design of Frequency Domain Based Chipless RFID Readers 81

4.3.1 Design of a Reader That Detects the Features of Frequency Signatures of Chipless RFID Tags 81

4.3.2 Design of a Reader That Recovers the Frequency Signatures of Chipless RFID Tags 82

4.4 Results 86

4.4.1 Results: Detecting the Features of Frequency Signatures 86

4.4.2 Results: Recovering the Frequency Signature of Chipless RFID Tags 88

4.5 Conclusion 88

Questions 90

References 91

Chapter 5 Time Domain Based Chipless RFID Reader 93

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Theory of Operation of a Time Domain Based Chipless RFID Reader 96

5.2.1 Generation of UWB Short Pulses 96

5.2.2 UWB Short Pulse Based Interrogation 100

5.3 Design of UWB TD Based Chipless RFID Reader 105

5.3.1 Simulation Setup in Agilent ADS2009 106

5.4 Results 110

5.4.1 Discussion of Results 111

5.5 Conclusion 115

Questions 117

References 118

Chapter 6 Hybrid Chipless RFID Reader 121

6.1 Introduction 121

6.2 Frequency-Phase Based System 125

6.2.1 Working Principle of the Encoding Element 125

6.2.2 Hybrid Frequency-Phase Chipless RFID Based on C-Sections 127

6.2.3 Chipless RFID Reader for Hybrid Frequency-Phase Chipless RFID 128

6.3 Frequency-Polarization Based System 131

6.3.1 Resonant and Polarization Characteristics of the Split-Ring Resonator 131

6.3.2 Encoding Information in a SRR Based Frequency-Polarization Tag 132

6.3.3 Chipless RFID Reader for Hybrid Frequency-Polarization Based Chipless RFID 134

6.4 Frequency-Time Based System 136

6.4.1 Group Delay Based Frequency-Time Hybrid Chipless RFID 136

6.4.2 Non-Group-Delay Based Approaches for Hybrid Frequency-Time Chipless RFID 141

6.4.3 Chipless RFID Reader for Hybrid Frequency-Time Based Chipless RFID 142

6.5 Conclusion 143

Questions 144

Reference 145

Chapter 7 Antennas for Chipless RFID Readers 147

7.1 Introduction 147

7.2 Antenna Parameters 151

7.3 Review of UWB Antennas 155

7.4 Practical Design Procedure for UWB Antennas 157

7.5 UWB Antenna Development 159

7.5.1 UWB Disk-Loaded Monopole Antennas 159

7.5.2 UWB Dipole Array Antennas 165

7.5.3 Log-Periodic Dipole Antennas 176

7.5.4 Log-Periodic Dipole Array Antennas 180

7.5.5 UWB Horn Antennas 191

7.6 Applications 200

7.6.1 Disk-Loaded Monopoles as Reader Antennas 200

7.6.2 Elliptical Leaf Dipole Arrays as Reader Antennas 200

7.6.3 LPDAAs as Reader Antennas 201

7.6.4 Horns as Reader Antennas 201

7.7 Conclusion 201

Questions 202

References 204

Chapter 8 Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Active and Passive Components 207

8.1 Introduction 207

8.2 Passive Components 208

8.2.1 Antennas 208

8.2.2 Filters 209

8.2.3 Couplers 215

8.2.4 Circulators 217

8.2.5 Power Divider/Combiner 218

8.2.6 Resonators 221

8.2.7 Mixers 224

8.3 Active Components 227

8.3.1 Voltage-Controlled Oscillators 227

8.3.2 Low-Noise Amplifiers 233

8.4 Discussion and Conclusions 234

Questions 236

References 237

Chapter 9 Digital Module for Chipless RFID Readers 239

9.1 Introduction 239

9.2 Digital Control Board 242

9.2.1 Power Supply Unit 243

9.2.2 IR Tag Sensor 243

9.2.3 RF Power Supply Control Switch 246

9.2.4 VCO Control Voltage Generator 246

9.3 Digital Signal Processing Board 247

9.4 Middleware 249

9.5 Performance of Digital Control Section 251

9.6 Conclusion 252

Questions 253

References 253

Chapter 10 RFID Reader System Integration and Applications 257

10.1 Introduction 257

10.2 The Integrated Chipless RFID Reader 259

10.3 Specifications of a Generic Chipless RFID Reader 259

10.3.1 Chipless RFID Tag 260

10.3.2 Reading Techniques 260

10.3.3 Reader Device 264

10.3.4 Application Software 267

10.4 Applications 268

10.4.1 Conveyer Belt Application 269

10.4.2 Vehicle Tracking 270

10.5 Conclusion 273

Questions 273

References 274

List of Acronyms 277

Glossary 281

About the Authors 287

Index 289

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FRINGEINDEPENEDENTREVIEW More than 1 year ago
Are you a researcher in the chipless RFID systems field? If you are, then this book is for you. Authors Nemai Chandra Karmakar, Randika V. Koswatta and Prasanna Kalansuriya, have done an outstanding job of writing a book that aims to provide the reader with comprehensive information with the recent development of chipless RFID tags, associated chipless RFID tags readers, and their relevant detection and signal processing both in the physical layer development and the software development algorithm and protocols. Authors Karmakar, Koswatta and Kalansuriya, begin by reviewing the chipless RFID fundamentals. Next, the authors present an overview of the operating principles of chipless RFID systems. Then, they provide a comprehensive review of various chipless RFID readers and their operating principles. In addition, the authors provide detailed information for two chipless tag readers. They continue by describing the fundamental theory for a time domain based chipless RFID reader design, by using the UWB impulse radio principle, followed by the reader architecture and simulated results of the reader design. The authors then present some recent progresses in chipless RFID tage reading techniques. Next, they summarize the design and fabrication of microwave and millimeter-wave band UWB antennas and their evaluation, as used in their intended RFID tag reader systems. Then, the authors formulate the specifications for various passive and active components for the reader systems, followed by the fundamental theories and design details of these components. In addition, they provide information on the requirements of digital interfaces for chipless RFID readers. Finally, the authors present the integration of the UWB antennas, RF reader front-ends, and digital sections in the formation of a complete chipless RFID system.  This most excellent book is the first in the field to cover comprehensively many significant aspects of chipless RFID reader architecture and signal processing.  Furthermore, this great book is an initiative to publish the most recent results of research and development on the chipless RFID tag reader system. Finally, this fantastic book has also proposed a few state-of -the-art multiaccess and signal integrity protocols to improve the efficacy of the system in multiple tag reading scenarios.