ISBN-10:
1846288096
ISBN-13:
9781846288098
Pub. Date:
11/29/2007
Publisher:
Springer London
Chlamydia Atherosclerosis Lesion: Discovery, Diagnosis and Treatment / Edition 1

Chlamydia Atherosclerosis Lesion: Discovery, Diagnosis and Treatment / Edition 1

by Allan Shor

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Overview

Chlamydia Atherosclerosis Lesion: Discovery, Diagnosis and Treatment / Edition 1

Several viruses, including herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, and coxsackie B virus, have been implicated in heart disease. Recent work has suggested that atherosclerosis or atheroma – the disease responsible for myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular and other major vascular problems – is not simply caused by dietary factors but also Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. This discovery changes the concept of cardiovascular disease, which will have a profound effect on hundreds of millions of people and is of wide interest to modern cardiovascular medicine.

Atherosclerosis Lesion: Discovery, Diagnosis and Treatment presents current understanding on the specific pathological features of the C. pneumoniae arterial lesion and the unique morphological features and life cycle of C. pneumoniae in atheromatous arteries.

It is important for every medical practitioner to be aware of this disease. All internal medicine physicians, intensivists, family medicine practitioners, infectious disease and immunology physicians should be aware of the impact of C. pneumoniae, the specific pathological features, and methods of diagnosing the lesion. This book presents a unique review of this important clinical issue.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781846288098
Publisher: Springer London
Publication date: 11/29/2007
Edition description: 2007
Pages: 170
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

About the Author

Dr Allan Shor is an anatomical pathologist who discovered Chlamydia pneumoniae germs in atheroma lesions and described the features of a Chlamydia pneumoniae atheroma lesion of the arteries. He is a world authority of this very specialized field of pathology of Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis lesions and possesses a collection of unique and extensive micrographs and electron micrographs of the disease: the result of many years of microscopic and electron microscopic examination of many tens of thousands of atheroma lesions. Dr Allan Shor has written many peer reviewed articles in prominent international journals and given many international invited lectures on the subject.

Table of Contents

Preface vii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Killer Germs That Clog Arteries 1

Chapter 2 The Germ's Story 3

2.1 A Life of Infection and Destruction 3

Chapter 3 The Deadly Disease 6

3.1 A Very Common Disease 6

3.2 A Little Bit of History 8

3.3 Research 10

3.4 Cholesterol 10

3.5 Other Components 11

3.6 Molecular Biology of the Lesion 12

3.7 The Age of Statistics 12

3.8 Animal Studies 13

3.9 Modern View of the Lesion 13

Chapter 4 Atheroma Gruel 17

4.1 Study of Fatty Gruel That Clogs Arteries 17

4.2 Electron Microscope 19

4.3 Electron Microscopic Features of Atheroma Gruel 20

Chapter 5 Discovery 29

5.1 Does Atheroma Gruel Consist of Fat or Germs? 29

5.2 Which Germ? 30

5.3 A Chlamydia Germ 31

Chapter 6 Which Chlamydia Species? 35

6.1 Some Unique Features of the Chlamydia Germ in Atheroma 35

6.2 Not Conventional Chlamydia Species 36

6.3 A New Chlamydia Species 37

6.4 Other Chlamydia Species 41

Chapter 7 Identification of the Atheroma Germ 43

7.1 Attempts at Identification of the Germ 43

7.2 Positive Identification of Chlamydia TWAR 45

7.3 Methods of Identification 45

Chapter 8 Publications, Presentations, and Confirmation 48

8.1 Publications 48

8.2 Presentations 49

8.3 Confirmation 50

8.4 Possible Special Strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae 50

Chapter 9 Chlamydia Are Inherent Components of Atheroma 54

9.1 Serology Not Helpful 54

9.2 Previous Journal Articles on Atheroma Contain Pictures of Unrecognized Chlamydia Germs 55

9.3 Persons with Congenital Raised Cholesterol Contain Chlamydia pneumoniae Germs in Atheroma 56

9.4 Are There Other Germs in Atheroma? 57

Chapter 10 Do Chlamydia Germs Cause Atherosclerosis? 60

10.1Determining Causality 60

10.2 Statistical Criteria 61

10.3 Koch's Postulates 62

10.4 Does Eradication of Germ Prove Causality? 62

10.5 No Disease Without Causal Agent 63

Chapter 11 Pathological Lesion Diagnosis 64

11.1 Lesion Examination 64

11.2 Lesion Diagnosis 65

11.3 Inability to Diagnose Atheroma Lesion 65

Chapter 12 Study of Atheroma Lesions 67

12.1 Steps in Atheroma Lesion Formation 67

12.2 Aspects Requiring Reexamination 68

12.3 Addressing the Problem of Atheroma Lesion Formation 68

Chapter 13 New Findings Concerning the Initial Lesion 71

13.1 Initial Lesion 71

13.2 Primary Muscle Damage 72

13.3 Chlamydia Cause Muscle Cell Damage 80

Chapter 14 Fatty Streak Lesion 82

14.1 Macrophage Infiltration 82

14.2 Macrophages Phagocytose Fat, Germs, and Muscle 82

14.3 Macrophage Reaction Resulting from Germs and Muscle Damage 87

Chapter 15 Formation of Fibronecrotic Plaque 89

15.1 Formation of Atheroma Gruel 89

15.2 Ceroid or Blighted Chlamydia Vacuoles? 95

15.3 Cholesterol Crystallization 98

15.4 Late Sequelae: Fibrosis, Calcification, and Angiogenesis 101

Chapter 16 Interpretation of Lesion 104

16.1 Another Way to Look at the Lesion 104

16.2 Assessment of Evidence 109

16.3 What Do We Call the Lesion? 111

Chapter 17 Confirmatory Molecular Biological Studies 112

17.1 Is Lymphocytic Infiltrate Caused by Chlamydia? 112

17.2 Intimal Smooth Muscle Cell Damage 113

17.3 Monocyte and Macrophage Infiltrate 113

17.4 Endothelial Changes 114

17.5 Collagen Formation 114

Chapter 18 Derivation of Lipid in Lesion 117

18.1 Atheroma Lipid 117

18.2 Chlamydia Lipid 119

18.3 Cholesterol: Friend or Foe? 121

Chapter 19 Acceptance 124

19.1 Old Ideas Do Not Change 124

19.2 Rejection of New Ideas 125

Chapter 20 Diagnosis of Atheroma Lesions 127

20.1 Serology 128

20.2 Heat Shock Protein 128

20.3 C-Reactive Protein 128

20.4 Detection of Chlamydia in White Blood Cells and Blood 129

20.5 Other Possible Tests 129

20.6 Pathological Diagnosis 129

20.7 Chlamydia Inclusion Bodies 129

20.8 Electron Microscopy 130

20.9 Immunohistochemical Detection 130

20.10 Polymerase Chain Reaction 130

20.11 Culture 130

Chapter 21 Treatment 132

21.1 Antibiotic Sensitivity 133

21.2 What Happens to the Lesion? 134

21.3 Does the Lesion Change in Size? 134

21.4 Does the Lesion Change in Character? 135

Chapter 22 Pathological Study 137

22.1 Eradication of Germ 138

22.2 Size of Lesion 139

22.3 Stage of Lesion 139

22.4 Decrease in Inflammation 139

22.5 Fibrosis and Scar Formation 139

22.6 Regeneration 142

22.7 Does Treatment Increase Healing? 142

Chapter 23 Other Studies 144

23.1 Animal Studies 144

23.2 Retrospective Studies 144

23.3 Secondary Prevention Trials 145

23.4 Meta-Analysis 147

23.5 Relevance of Clinical Trials 147

23.6 Unconsidered Aspects 147

23.7 Noncardiac Treatment Trials 148

Chapter 24 What Do We Know About Treatment of Atheroma Lesions? 151

24.1 Physiology of the Heart 151

24.2 What Causes a Heart Attack? 152

24.3 Atherosclerosis Is Not the Same as Ischemic Heart Disease 153

Chapter 25 Other Treatment Possibilities 155

25.1 Statins 155

25.2 Aspirin 156

25.3 Antihypertensive Agents 157

25.4 New Innovative Agents 157

25.5 Immunization 158

Chapter 26 Conclusion 160

Glossary of Terms 161

Index 163

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