In this book, updated information on all major aspects of the harvesting and chocolate manufacture of Venezuelan cocoa are compiled and discussed. The major quality factors in chocolate processing from the post harvest to its manufacture are studied, covering topics such as cocoa cultivation and processing, with special attention paid to bean composition, and its genotypic variations, fermentation and drying processes, and the chemical and biochemical basis of these operations; and the procedures of conching, tempering, molding and enrobing. The microbiological and physicochemical factors that affect the safety and quality of chocolate are also compiled. The composition and importance of the triglycerides that make up cocoa butter and the physico-chemical factors associated with the crystallization and stability of these fats in the manufacture of chocolate are evaluated. A review and discussion of the conventional perception as regards the types and composition of chocolate, comparing it to recent reports in literature which scientifically demonstrate that chocolate can be considered as a functional food, are available in this book. An assemblage of published information of the different aspects that make up the sensory quality of chocolate, basic techniques of photography and styling, and its applications in the chocolate as well as the parameters inherent in the composition, and physical properties involved in the final appearance of the chocolate is discussed. The organization, the day to day running, production and quality control of the products made by the Venezuelan socialist enterprise “Cacao Oderí” and the activities of the chocolate School de La Alba are shown. Finally, the proximate composition and some nutritional and functional properties of cocoa by-products (pod husks and bean coats) were analyzed in order to propose them for feed and food uses.