Christian Pacifism Confronts German Nationalism: The Ecumenical Movement and the Cause of Peace in Germany, 1914-1933

Christian Pacifism Confronts German Nationalism: The Ecumenical Movement and the Cause of Peace in Germany, 1914-1933

by Julia Jenkins

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780773471375
Publisher: Mellen, Edwin Press, The
Publication date: 01/01/2002
Series: Studies in Religion and Society
Pages: 520

Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations
Prefacei
Acknowledgementsv
Introduction
a.The Context of the Problem1
b.The Major Topics of Discussion4
c.Existing Secondary Literature and Primary Sources9
d.Conclusion16
Part IIdeological Foundations
1.The Weltanschauung of German Protestantism17
1.1The Historical Roots of the German Political-Religious Culture18
1.1.1The Foundation in Lutheran Theology18
1.1.2The Nineteenth Century Development of German Political Ideology20
1.1.3The Effect of Political Ideology on Religious Culture24
1.1.4The Contribution of Kulturprotestantismus27
1.1.5The Justification of War30
1.2World War I and its Aftermath in the Weimar Era32
1.2.1War Theology During World War I32
1.2.2The Consequences of Defeat35
1.2.3National-Protestantism during the Weimar Republic39
1.2.4The Rise of volkisch Theology42
2.Siegmund-Schultze's Ideology and its Theological Roots47
2.1The Development of Major Directions in Siegmund-Schultze's Career47
2.2The Theological Basis of Siegmund-Schultze's Ideology54
2.2.1The Centrality of Christ and the Goal of Nachfolge Christi54
2.2.2Love as the Ethical Standard for both Individual and Community58
2.2.3The Importance of Christian Community61
2.3Volksgemeinschaft63
2.3.1As the Basis for Social Community63
2.3.2As the Basis for International Community67
2.4The Problem of an International Ethic71
2.5Versohnung as the Basis for Peace75
2.6Peace as a Christian Responsibility82
2.6.1Siegmund-Schultze's Attitudes Regarding War and Peace82
2.6.2The Preconditions for Peace: Truth, Justice and Love86
Part IIThe Activities of the Peace Movement of the Churches
3.Baptism of Fire: The Origins of the World Alliance91
3.1Prelude: The British-German Friendship Work, 1908-191492
3.1.1The Visit of German Churchmen to England, 190892
3.1.2The Return Visit of English Churchmen, 190995
3.1.3Assessment of the British-German Exchange Visits97
3.1.4The Continuation of the Work: the Associated Councils101
3.1.5The Limitations of the Friendship Work105
3.1.6Outbreak of World War I: Kulturkrieg of the Intellectuals107
3.1.7The Divergent Worldviews of the British and German Churchmen110
3.2Towards an International Peace Movement of the Churches114
3.2.1The Lake Mohonk Conference, 1911114
3.2.2Plans for an International Peace Conference of the Churches118
3.2.3The Constance Conference, August 1914122
3.2.4The Aftermath of Constance126
4.Up from the Ashes: The Battle for Survival, 1914-1918131
4.1Reactions of the Churchmen to World War I131
4.1.1Initial Protests of the Pacifists131
4.1.2The Different Interpretations of the War134
4.2The Activities of the World Alliance138
4.2.1Maintaining International Ties138
4.2.2The Caritas inter Arma Programme142
4.3The Situation in Germany145
4.3.1Persecution from the German Military Authorities145
4.3.2Siegmund-Schultze's Critique of the War147
4.3.3The Difficulties of Promoting the Work in Germany152
4.4Efforts for an International Conference, 1917-1918154
4.4.1Proposals for an International Conference154
4.4.2The Uppsala Conference and its Aftermath157
4.5Conclusions161
5.The Practice of Peace: The World Alliance, 1919-1933163
5.1Renewing Friendship: the Oud Wassenaer Conference 1919163
5.2The Ideology of the Alliance171
5.2.1The Dominant Influence of Western Liberalism171
5.2.2Comparison with the International Fellowship of Reconciliation176
5.3The Structure of the Alliance179
5.4The Purpose and Tasks of the Alliance182
5.5The Methods of the Alliance186
5.5.1Influencing Public Opinion186
5.5.2Resolutions188
5.5.3Conferences193
5.5.4Other Activities197
5.6The Finances of the Alliance200
5.7Crisis within the Alliance, 1929-1932203
5.7.1Structural Reorganisation203
5.7.2Bonhoeffer's Critique of the Alliance205
5.81933: The Failure of the Alliance210
6.The Peace Movement of the Churches in Germany, 1919-1933215
6.1Origins of Pacifism in Germany215
6.1.1Pacifism in Germany before World War I215
6.1.2World War I and the Post-war Era222
6.2Fundamental Difficulties Facing the Peace Movement of the Churches in Germany226
6.2.1The Nationalist Mindset of the German Churchmen226
6.2.2Different Conceptions of the Kingdom of God228
6.2.3Suspicion of Pacifism231
6.2.4Bitterness and Antagonisms after World War I234
6.3The German National Council of the World Alliance, 1919-1933237
6.3.1The Struggle to Overcome Overwhelming Prejudices237
6.3.2The Activities of the German National Council241
6.3.3The Relationship with the German Church Authorities246
6.3.3.1The Pechmann Affair, 1922248
6.3.3.2Controversy over the German Delegation to the Stockholm World Conference of the Life and Work Movement255
6.3.4The Rising Tide of Nationalist Opposition261
6.3.51933: Collapse of the German National Council264
Part IIIThe Issues within the Peace Movement of the Churches, 1919-1933
7.The Treaty of Versailles and the War Guilt Question, 1919-1933269
7.1The Period of Confrontation, 1919-1924269
7.1.1The Fourteen Points and the Treaty of Versailles269
7.1.2The War Guilt Clause272
7.1.3The DEKA's Campaign Against Versailles274
7.1.4The Response of the Forces of Peace to the Peace of Force277
7.1.5Siegmund-Schultze's "Anmerkungen zur Schuldfrage"281
7.1.6The War Guilt Question in the Ecumenical Movement, 1919-1922289
7.1.7The Ruhr Crisis and the World Alliance, 1923-1924295
7.1.8Conclusions299
7.2The Period of Rapprochement, 1924-1928301
7.2.1The Stuttgart Conference of the German National Council, 1924301
7.2.2The New German Strategy against Versailles303
7.2.3Discussion within the Life and Work Movement, 1925-1926309
7.3The Period of Appeasement, 1929-1933313
7.3.1Renewed Demands from the German Churchmen313
7.3.2The Kassel Conference of the German National Council, 1929315
7.3.3The Genesis of Appeasement, 1931-1932318
7.4Conclusions322
8.The League of Nations and Disarmament327
8.1The Debate over the League of Nations, 1919-1926328
8.1.1The League of Nations and the "League of Churches"328
8.1.2German Attitudes to the League of Nations332
8.1.3The Conflict of Worldviews: Stockholm 1925335
8.1.4Limited German Acceptance of the League342
8.2The Debate over Disarmament, 1927-1933344
8.2.1The German Case for Disarmament344
8.2.2The Debate at the Prague World Conference, 1928347
8.2.3The Debate Continued: Siegmund-Schultze and Wilfred Monod352
8.2.4The Eisenach-Avignon Resolution, 1929356
8.2.5The Debate Renewed in the Midst of Crisis, 1931359
8.2.6Siegmund-Schultze's Pessimistic Outlook362
8.2.7The World Disarmament Conference, 1932-1933364
8.3Conclusions368
Epilogue: The Decline of the World Alliance, 1933-1948371
a.The Beginning of the End371
b.New Challenges: Refugees and Minorities372
c.The Final Years of the World Alliance378
d.Reasons for the Collapse of the World Alliance381
e.Siegmund-Schultze's Bitter Withdrawal from the Ecumenical Movement386
Conclusion391
Appendices403
Appendix I"International Peace and the German Christian". Theses by Friedrich Siegmund-Schultze403
Appendix IIWorld Alliance Declaration of Principles, Oud Wassenaer Conference, 1919408
Appendix IIIStuttgart Resolutions on War Guilt, 1924410
Appendix IVPrague Resolutions on Disarmament, 1928411
Appendix VEisenach-Avignon Resolution, 1929413
Appendix IVTable of Ecumenical Conferences, 1914-1948415
Bibliography417
Index485

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