Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function

Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function


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Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function by Daniela Jezova

During the past several decades, much research effort has gone into the elucidation of the role of neuroendocrine systems as secretory and metabolic regulators of cells of a variety of organs and structures, including the testes, ovaries, adrenals, thyroid, pituitary gland, and mammary glands. However, the role of cells comprising such organs and structures in the modulation of neuroendocrine processes has received considerably less is generally less well appreciated. attention and Nonetheless, it is important that we understand the actions on neuroendocrine systems of substances that reach the brain by way of the vasculature, including hormones, cytokines, toxins, amino acids, drugs, and similar agents. In order to analyze the present state of knowledge on this topic, experimental scientists and clinicians, whose shared interests include actions of circulating agents on the brain, met at a satellite symposium of the XXXI International Congress of Physiological Sciences. This symposium, entitled Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function, was held in Smolenice Castle, Czechoslovakia, June 26-July 1, 1989, and reviews delivered at this symposium as invited presentations are published in this volume. Presentations given as free communications have been published separately and are available in Endocrinologia Experimentalis 24: 1-273, 1990.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780306436093
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 01/01/1990
Series: Aemb Series , #27
Pages: 520

Table of Contents

1 The Tuberoinfundibular Dopaminergic Neurons of the Brain: Hormonal Regulation.- Neurotropic Agents.- Prolactin and Fertility.- Prolactin and TIDA Neurons.- Young Adult Female Rats.- Aged Female Rats.- Young Adult Male Rats.- Ovarian Hormones and TIDA Neurons.- Young Adult Female Rats.- Aged Female Rats.- Young Adult Male Rats.- Discussion.- Summary.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 2 The Physiology of the Blood-Brain Barrier.- History.- Morphology of Brain Endothelial Cells.- The Role of the Astrocytes.- Lipid Solubility.- The BBB: A Modified Tight Epithelium.- Transport Mechanisms.- Cell Polarity.- Enzymatic Barriers.- Neurogenic Influences.- Dynamics and Fluctuations of BBB Functions.- Immunological Aspects.- Brain Regions Lacking BBB have a CSF Barrier.- Facilitating Passage of Substances from Blood to Brain.- Increasing Lipid Solubility.- Cationization.- Liposome Entrapment.- Coupling to Substances Entering by Receptor-Mediated Transport.- Experimentally Increasing the BBB Permeability.- Is it Wise to Alter the BBB?.- Summary.- References.- 3 Blood-Brain Barrier and Neuroendocrine Regulations.- Catecholamines and ACTH Secretion.- Serotonin and ACTH Secretion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 4 Exchange of Peptides Between the Circulation and the Nervous System: Role of the Blood-Brain Barrier.- Early Work on Peptides and the BBB.- Nonsaturable Passage of Peptides.- Saturable Transport.- Modification of Transport.- Lighting.- Amino Acids.- Monoamines.- Stress.- Aging.- Analgesia.- Aluminum.- Ethanol.- References.- 5 Vasopressin, The Blood-Brain Barrier, and Brain Performance.- The Peripheral and Central Release of Vasopressin.- Vasopressin and Information Processing within the Brain.- The BBB as a Target for Vasopressin.- AVP and Brain Performance.- References.- 6 Neuroendocrine Responses to Emotional Stress: Possible Interactions Between Circulating Factors and Anterior Pituitary Hormone Release.- Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Summary.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 7 Regulation of the Sympathetic Nervous System by Circulating Vasopressin.- Conclusions.- References.- 8 Antibodies to Neuropeptides: Biological Effects and Mechanisms of Action.- The Humoral Antibody-Peptide Interaction Concept.- Epitopes and Biological Activity.- Affinity and Biological Activity.- Binding Kinetics and Biological Activity.- Antibody-Cell Interaction Concept.- Neuronal Uptake of Antibodies to Enzymes.- Antibody-Induced Neuronal Lesions.- Antibody to Neuropeptides, Uptake and Biological Effects.- Conclusions.- References.- 9 Circulating Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Pregnancy.- References.- 10 Therapeutic Effects of Neuroactive Drugs on Hypothalamo-Pituitary in Man.- Prolactin.- Growth Hormone.- ACTH.- Conclusions.- References.- 11 Cardiac Hormones and Neuroendocrine Function.- Cardiac Hormones: Isolation and Physiological Effects in the Periphery.- Cardiac Hormones: Presence and Actions in the Central Nervous System.- Cardiac Hormones: Are the Pharmacologic Effects Physiologically Significant?.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 12 Interactions Between the Circulating Hormones Angiotensin and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Their Receptors in Brain.- Materials and Methods.- Animals.- In Vitro Labeling of Peptide Receptors.- Receptor Autoradiography.- Results.- Distribution of Peptide Receptors in Brain.- Peptide Receptors in Hypertension.- Peptide Receptors in Alterations of Water Balance.- Peptide Receptors During Stress.- Brain Peptide Receptors After Endocrine Manipulations.- Discussion.- Conclusions.- References.- 13 The Anterior Third Ventricle Region is a Receptor Site for the Composition Rather than Volume of Body Fluids.- Cerebral Origin of a Natriuretic Hormone.- Sodium Concentration of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Renal Regulation of the Extracellular Fluid Volume.- Anterior Wall of the Third Cerebral Ventricle and Renal Sodium Excretion.- Atrial Appendectomy Impairs Natriuresis Induced by Isotonic and Hypertonic Saline Loads.- The Pituitary—Another Site of a Cerebral Natriuretic System.- Conclusions.- References.- 14 Peripheral Neurohumoral Factors and Central Control of Homeostasis During Altered Sodium Intake.- Multifactorial Control of Aldosterone Secretion: Role of AII.- Regulation of the Adrenal Sensitivity to All.- Role of Dopamine in the Adrenal Sensitivity to All.- Mechanism of Dopaminergic Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion.- Source of Dopamine During Changes in Sodium Intake.- Conclusions.- References.- 15 Central Action of Adrenal Steroids During Stress and Adaptation.- Differentiation of Corticosteroid Receptor Types: In Vivo and In Vitro Binding Sites.- Distribution of Corticosteroid Receptor Sites: Radioligand Binding Studies.- Distribution of Corticosteroid Receptor Sites: Immunocytochemistry and Gene Expression.- Corticosterone- and Aldosterone-Selective Mineralocorticoid Receptors.- Species-Specificity of Mineralocorticoid Receptors and Glucocorticoid Receptors in Rat and Hamster Brain.- Plasticity of the Corticosteroid Receptor System: Binding Studies.- Plasticity: Corticosteroid Receptor Gene Expression.- Corticosteroid Receptors and Senescence.- Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Glucocorticoid Receptor Occupancy Studies.- Receptor Plasticity Vs. Receptor Occupancy.- Functional Considerations.- Summary.- References.- 16 Effects of Thyroid Hormones on the Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Neurons.- Effects of Thyroid Hormones on the Hypothalamic DA Neurons During Fetal Life or Neonatal Period.- Effects of Thyroid Hormones on the Hypothalamic DA Neurons During Adult Life.- Activity of the TIDA Neurons in Adult Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats: Regulation by Thyroid Hormones?.- Effects of Thyroid Hormones on the Neuroendocrine Hypothalamic TRH-Secreting Neurons: Analogies with the TIDA Neurons.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 17 Inhibin and Related Proteins: Localization, Regulation, and Effects.- Detection of Inhibin and Related Peptides.- Structure of Inhibin and Related Peptides.- Localization of Inhibin and Related Substances.- Regulation of Inhibin Production.- Studies in Male Animals.- In Vitro in Male Animals.- In Vivo Studies.- Studies in Female Animals.- Inhibin Production by Granulosa Cells In Vitro.- In Vivo Studies.- Extrapituitary Effects of Inhibin and Activin.- Effects on Secretion of GnRH and Oxytocin.- Intragonadal Effects.- Effects on Placenta and Conception.- Effects on Hematopoietic Cell Lines.- Effects Related to Carbohydrate Metabolism.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 18 Role of Endotoxin and Interleukin-1 in Modulating ACTH, LH, and Sex Steroid Secretion.- Materials and Methods.- Experiments.- Drugs.- Results and Discussion.- Effect of LPS on the HPA and HPG Axis.- Mechanisms Mediating the Effects of LPS or IL-1 on the HPA Axis.- Mechanisms Mediating the Effect of LPS or IL-1 on the HPG Axis.- Summary.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 19 Neuroendocrinology of Interleukin-1.- Pituitary-Adrenal Activity During Immune Challenges.- Involvement of Monokines?.- Site of Action.- Mechanism of Action.- Other Neuroendocrine Effects of IL-1.- Functional Significance.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 20 Role of Monokines in Control of Anterior Pituitary Hormone Release.- Interleukin-1.- Tumor Necrosis Factor (Cachectin).- Gamma Interferon.- Summary.- References.- 21 Interleukins, Signal Transduction, and the Immune System-Mediated Stress Response.- Early Studies Linking Immune System and Stress Axis Activation.- CNS-Mediated Cytokine Stimulation of the HPA Axis.- Pituitary-Mediated Cytokine Stimulation of the HPA Axis.- Adrenal-Mediated Cytokine Stimulation of the Stress Axis.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 22 Immunoneurology: A Serum Protein Afferent Limb to the CNS.- The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) and Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Barrier.- BBB Studies in the Rat.- BBB Studies in the Rabbit.- Materials and Methods.- Results and Discussion.- BBB Studies in the Guinea Pig.- Materials and Methods.- Vascular Brain Perfusion Technique.- Experimental Allergic Encephalitis (EAE) in the Guinea Pig.- Scintillation Counting.- Isotopically Labelled IgG..- Measurement of IgG and Plasma Albumin Levels in CSF.- Immunocytochemical (ICC) Studies.- Calculation of the Unidirectional Blood-to-Brain Transfer Constant.- Results.- Autoimmune Diseases.- Multiple Sclerosis (MS).- Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration (PCD).- Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).- Discussion and Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 23 Neuroendocrine Mechanisms in the Thermogenic Responses to Diet, Infection, and Trauma.- Thermogenesis—Basic Concepts and Biological Value.- Effector Mechanisms of Thermogenesis.- Central Control of Thermogenesis.- Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.- Dietary Related Signals for Thermogenesis.- Fever.- Thermogenic Responses to Injury.- Conclusions.- References.- 24 The Blood-Brain Barrier in Diabetes Mellitus.- Central Nervous System (CNS) Abnormalities in Diabetes.- Cognitive Function.- EEG Changes.- Nociception and Neuroendocrine Abnormalities.- Abnormalities of the Cerebral Microvasculature in Diabetes.- Permeability.- Transport.- Histologic Abnormalities.- References.- 25 Circulating Blood Glucose and Hypothalamic-Pituitaiy Secretion.- Effect of Acute Hyperglycemia on Hypothalamic-Pituitary Secretion.- Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Hypothalamus-Pituitary Secretion.- Effect of Hypoglycemia on Hypothalamic-Pituitary Secretion.- Conclusions.- References.- 26 Nutritional and Hemodynamic Factors Influencing Adenopituitaiy Function in Man.- General Conditions of the Investigation.- Effect of Hyperlipidemia on Growth Hormone Secretion.- Tryptophan-Induced Release of GH and PRL: Effect of Glucose Administration.- Effect of Glucose on Exercise-Induced Release of GH, ACTH, and PRL.- Hypoglycemia-Induced GH and PRL Release: Mediation by DifferentGlucoreceptor Areas.- Plasma GH, PRL, and Cortisol after Transient Cerebral Ischemia.- Effects of Open Heart Surgery on Growth Hormone, Cortisol, and InsulinConcentrations.- Conclusions.- References.- 27 Differences in the Effects of Acute and Chronic Administration of Dexfenfluramine on Cortisol and Prolactin Secretion.- Effect of Dexfenfluramine on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Rat.- Materials and Methods.- Animals.- Collection of HPB.- Cannulation of the Tail Artery.- Acute d-F Treatment.- Chronic d-F Treatment.- Hormone Measurements.- Statistical Analysis.- Results.- Acute d-F Treatment.- Chronic d-F Treatment.- Discussion.- Effects of Dexfenfluramine on the Secretion of Pituitary Hormones in Human.- Effect in Human.- Materials and Methods.- Subjects.- Protocols.- Determination of Hormones.- Statistical Analysis.- Results.- Discussion.- Conclusion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Participants.

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