Cities and Urban Life / Edition 3

Cities and Urban Life / Edition 3

ISBN-10:
013111395X
ISBN-13:
9780131113954
Pub. Date:
06/19/2003
Publisher:
Prentice Hall

Hardcover

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Cities and Urban Life / Edition 3

Cities and Urban Life, authored by two of the best-known textbook writers in the field, provides a comprehensive introduction to urban sociology, urban anthropology, and urban studies courses. Primarily sociological in approach, this book incorporates historical, social psychological, geographical, and anthropological insights. While strong in the classical urban sociology, it also gives extensive attention to the "new" political economy approach to urban studies. Also, the authors use global cities as case studies for more relevance to students.

 

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780131113954
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 06/19/2003
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 512
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.10(d)

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PREFACE:

PREFACE

As we begin a new century—indeed, a new millennium—the world stands on the brink of a historic landmark: In a few years, a majority of the planet's people will live in cities. Urban living is rapidly becoming the norm for members of our species. Surely, there is no more compelling reason to undertake the study of cities and urban life.

THE BASIC APPROACH

The approach of this text is multidisciplinary but fundamentally sociological. Readers will find here the enduring contributions of the classical European social thinkers, including Max Weber, Karl Marx, Ferdinand Tönnies, Georg Simmel, and Emile Durkheim, as well as those of early pioneers in North America, including Robert Park and Louis Wirth. Of course, many men and women have stood on the shoulders of these giants and extended our understanding. Thus, this text also considers the ideas of a host of contemporary urbanists, including Henri Lefebvre, Jane Jacobs, Manuel Castells, John Logan, Harvey Molotch, Kevin Lynch, Lyn Lofland, Carol Stack, and Herbert Gans.

Yet, as this string of well-known names suggests, urban studies rests on research and theory developed within many disciplines. Cities and Urban Life, therefore, is truly a multidisciplinary text that draws together the work of historians (Chapter 2: "The Origins and Development of the World's Cities," and Chapter 3: "The Development of North American Cities"); sociologists (Chapter 4: "Cities and Suburbs of the Twenty-First Century," Chapter 5: "Urban Sociology: The Classic Statements," Chapter 10: "Social Class: Urban and Suburban Lifestyles,"Chapter 11: "Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Urban Diversity," and Chapter 12: "Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems"); social psychologists (Chapter 6: "Social Psychology: The Urban Experience"); geographers and urban ecologists (Chapter 7: "Geography and Ecology: Making Sense of Space"); political economists working within various disciplines (Chapter 9: "Structural Imperatives: Urban Political Economy"); anthropologists (Chapter 8: "Urban Anthropology: The City and Culture," and Chapter 13: "Developing World Cities"); and architects as well as city planners (Chapter 14: "Planning the Urban Environment").

THE ORGANIZATION
OF THIS TEXT

Part I of the text, "Understanding the City," introduces the main questions and themes that resonate throughout the book (Chapter 1). Part II, "History of Cities and New Trends," surveys the historical development of cities, noting how urban life has often differed in striking ways from contemporary patterns we take for granted (Chapters 2 and 3), and the current trends of sprawl, edge cities, and gated communities that are shaping the cities and suburbs of the new century (Chapter 4). Part III, "Disciplinary Perspectives," highlights the various disciplinary orientations that, together, have so advanced our understanding of cities (Chapters 5 through 9). Part IV, "The Anatomy of the City," focuses on the social organization of today's cities in North America, highlighting how urban living reflects the importance of social class (Chapter 10), race, ethnicity, and gender (Chapter 11), as well as forcing us to confront vexing problems such as housing, education, and crime (Chapter 12). Part V, "Global Urbanization," offers a look at the history and current urbanization in four major world regions: Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia (Chapter 13). It is in these areas of the world that urbanization is now most rapid, with cities reaching unprecedented size. Finally, Part VI, ""The Planning and Evaluation of Cities," examines the architectural, social, and political dimensions of urban planning, as well as points out the problems that prevent cities from living up to their promise of improving everyone's lives (Chapter 14).

FOUR KEY THEMES

This attempt to tell the urban story will lead us to consider a wide range of issues and to confront countless questions. Yet four main themes guide this exploration, and it is useful to make these explicit. To put it another way, whatever else a student entering the field of urban studies might learn, he or she must pay attention to these themes:

  1. Cities and urban life vary according to time and place. Since the idea of the city came to our ancestors some 10,000 years ago, the urban scene has been re-created time and again, all around the world, in countless ways. The authors—informed by their own travels to some 60 of the world's nations—have labored to portray this remarkable diversity throughout this text.
  2. Cities reflect and intensify society and culture. Although cities vary in striking ways, everywhere they stand as physical symbols of human civilization. For example, nowhere do we perceive the inward-looking world of the Middle Ages better than in the walled medieval cities of that era. Similarly, modern U.S. cities are powerful statements about the contemporary forces of industrial capitalism.
  3. Cities reveal the best and the worst about the human condition. Another way to "read" cities is as testimony to the achievements and failings of a way of life. Thus, while New York boasts some spectacular architecture, exciting public parks, vital art galleries, and vibrant concert halls, it also forces us to confront chronic prejudice, wrenching poverty, and sometimes explosive violence.
  4. Cities offer the promise—but not always the reality—of a better life. At least since the time of the ancient Greeks, people have recognized that the city holds the promise of living " the good life." Yet all urban places fall short of this ideal in some ways, and in a number of today's cities, people are struggling valiantly simply to survive. The great promise of urban living, coupled with the daunting problems of actual cities, provokes us to ask how (or, indeed, if) we can intentionally and thoughtfully make urban places better. Although we are realistic about the problems, we remain optimistic about the possibilities.

SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE TEXT

Two special features warrant the attention of readers.

Boxes. First, each chapter contains several boxed inserts. These boxes are of five kinds. Critical Thinking boxes ask readers to grapple with a particular problem or question, assess some evidence, and reach a reasoned conclusion. Urban Living boxes provide a picture of the city "at street level"—that is, a close-up look at how people really live. Looking Back boxes amplify the historical content of the text, reminding us that our cities are built on the past, culturally and, indeed, literally. The City in Literature boxes are testimony to our belief that writers and poets (from Charles Dickens, Walt Whitman, and T. S. Eliot to Paul Theroux, John Steinbeck, Tom Wolfe, James Baldwin, Elijah Anderson, and Francine Garcia-Hallcom) have special abilities to capture the sights and sounds—and sometimes even the soul—of cities. Finally, Cityscapes present an extended literary account or scholarly analysis of some significant dimension of urban life.

Case Studies. The text includes eight case studies that offer a broad sociohistorical look at major cities in various regions of the world as they illustrate a chapter's key points. The cities profiled in these case studies are London (Chapter 2), New York (Chapter 3), Portland, Oregon (Chapter 4), Ming Peking (Chapter 8), Hellenic Athens (Chapter 8), Communist Beijing (Chapter 8), Chicago (Chapter 11), and Toronto (Chapter 14).

WHAT'S NEW
IN THE SECOND EDITION

The second edition of this text reflects a number of basic changes.

First, Chapter 4 ( "Cities and Suburbs of the Twenty-First Century") is a new chapter that extends the historical development of cities into the current postindustrial era and considers at length issues such as urban sprawl.

Second, Chapter 8 ( "Urban Anthropology: The City and Culture") enhances the comparative theme of the text, showing how societies at different times and in different places shape cities and urban life in distinctive ways.

Third, Chapter 12 ("Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems") has been expanded to include a discussion of the problems and debates surrounding urban schools.

Fourth, Chapter 13 ( "Cities in the Developing World") is a new chapter that surveys global urban development and highlights how cities in economically developing nations differ from those in rich countries such as the United States and Canada.

In addition, the entire text has been rewritten and updated, with new statistical data, the results of research published in the last four years, a number of new boxes and other features, and a new photo program.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, and most important, the authors wish to acknowledge the role played by James L. Spates, of Hobart and William Smith Colleges, in an earlier version of this book, titled The Sociology of Cities, coauthored by Jim Spates and John Macionis. Although Vince Parrillo and John Macionis have significantly revised that effort at many levels, Jim's ideas and enthusiasm for cities are still evident here.

Parrillo and Macionis wish to thank the editorial team at Prentice Hall for their efforts in making this text a reality. Particular thanks go to Nancy Roberts, publisher-sociology, for originally signing the project and helping to get the work under way, and to Sharon Chambliss, managing editor for sociology, for handling the review and production of this manuscript. Joan Stone did a masterful job in guiding the book through technical production and an on-time delivery date. We are grateful to Virginia Rubens for copyediting and to Melanie Belkin for preparing the index. Finally, we wish to thank Karen Pugliano for selecting the striking photographs that appear in the book.

For reviewing part or all of the manuscript and generously sharing their time and ideas with us, we gratefully acknowledge Ronald S. Edari, University of Wisconsin; Daniel Monti, Boston University; Leo Pinard, California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo; David Prok, Baldwin Wallace College; and James D. Tasa, Erie Community College-North.

John J. Macionis
Kenyon College
Gambier, Ohio 43022
E-mail: macionis@kenyon.edu
...

Table of Contents

PART  I         Understanding the City

Chapter 1      Exploring the City                                                                               

Why Study the City?                                                                                                         

The Complexity of the City: Various Perspectives                                                        

The City in History                                                                                                       

The Emergence of Urban Sociology                                                                          

Social Psychology: The Urban Experience                                                               

Urban Geography and Ecology                                                                                  

Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture                                                          

The New Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism                                               

The Anatomy of Modern North American Cities                                                         

The City in World Perspective                                                                                         

Urban Sociology and the Quality of City Life                                                                

Key Terms

 

 PART  II       History of Cities and New Trends

Chapter 2      The Origins and Development of the World’s Cities                           

Urban Origins                                                                                                                     

Archaeology: Digging the Early City                                                                        

The First Permanent Settlements                                                                                

The City Emerges                                                                                                           

The First Urban Revolution: City-States and Urban Empires                                     

The Near East: Mesopotamia and Egypt                                                                  

The Indus Region                                                                                                         

A Glance Eastward: China                                                                                            

A Glance Westward: The Americas                                                                           

Summary: Traits of Early Cities                                                                                   

Crete and Greece                                                                                                           

Rome                                                                                                                               

Decline: The Middle Ages                                                                                           

Revival: Medieval and Renaissance Cities                                                               

The Second Urban Revolution: The Rise of Modern Cities                                        

v CASE STUDY: London—The History of a WorldCity                                           

Beginnings: 55 b.c.e–1066 c.e.                                                                                   

The Medieval City: 1066–1550                                                                                    

The World City Emerges: 1550–1800                                                                          

Industrialization and Colonization: 1800–1900                                                         

The Modern Era: 1900 to the Present                                                                        

Summary                                                                                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

Chapter 3      The Development of North American Cities                                        

The Colonial Era: 1600–1800                                                                                             

Colonial City Characteristics                                                                                       

The City-Instigated Revolutionary War                                                                    

Growth and Expansion: 1800–1870                                                                                  

The Beginnings of Industrialization                                                                          

Urban–Rural/North–South Tensions                                                                        

The Era of the Great Metropolis: 1870–1950                                                                  

Technological Advance                                                                                              

Suburbs and the Gilded Age

 

The Great Migration                                                                                                      

Politics and Problems                                                                                                   

The Quality of Life in the New Metropolis                                                               

The North American City Today: 1950 to the Present                                                  

Decentralization                                                                                                            

The Sunbelt Expansion                                                                                                

The Coming of the Postindustrial City                                                                            

Deterioration and Regeneration                                                                                 

The Future                                                                                                                     

The Human Cost of Economic Restructuring                                                           

v CASE STUDY: New York—The "Big Apple"                                                         

The Colonial Era                                                                                                             

Growth and Expansion                                                                                                 

The Great Metropolis Emerges                                                                                   

New York Today                                                                                                            

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                           

Key Terms

 

Chapter 4      Cities and Suburbs of the Twenty-First Century                                 

Urban and Suburban Sprawl                                                                                            

What Is Sprawl?                                                                                                             

Why Do We Have Sprawl?                                                                                         

Where Does Sprawl Occur?                                                                                         

The Problems of Sprawl                                                                                               

Solutions to Sprawl                                                                                                      

Exurbs

The New Cities                                                                                                                    

Characteristics and Commonalities                                                                            

Types of Edge Cities                                                                                                    

Evolving Middle-Class Centers                                                                                  

Three Edge City Variations                                                                                         

Gated Communities                                                                                                             

Types of Gated Communities                                                                                      

A Sense of Community                                                                                                

Common-Interest Developments (CIDs)                                                                         

v CASE STUDY: Portland, Oregon                                                                              

The Physical Setting                                                                                                     

History                                                                                                                            

Urban Decline and the Planners’ Response to Sprawl                                           

Portland Today                                                                                                              

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                           

Key Terms

 

 PART  III      Disciplinary Perspectives

Chapter 5      Urban Sociology: Classic and Modern Statements                               

The European Tradition: 1846–1921                                                                                

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: From Barbarism to Civilization                           

Ferdinand Tönnies: From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft                                       

Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity                                              

Georg Simmel: The Mental Life of the Metropolis                                                   

Max Weber: The Historical and Comparative Study of Cities                                

The European Tradition: An Evaluation                                                                   

Urban Sociology in North America: 1915–1970                                                             

Robert Park and Sociology at the University of Chicago                                       

Louis Wirth and Urban Theory                                                                                   

Herbert Gans and the Urban Mosaic

 

Wirth and Gans: A Comparison

 

The Classic Theories and Modern Research: Myths and Realities                           

Tolerance in the City                                                                                                    

Impersonality in the City                                                                                              

Density and Urban Pathology                                                                                    

Urban Malaise                                                                                                                

The New Urban Sociology                                                                                          

Summary                 & nbsp;                                                                                                            

Conclusion                                                                                                                           

Key Terms

 

Chapter 6      Social Psychology: The Urban Experience                                            

The Physical Environment                                                                                                 

Kevin Lynch: The Image of the City                                                                          

Stanley Milgram: More on Mental Maps                                                                  

The Social Environment: Gesellschaft                                                                            

The Pedestrian: Watching Your Step                                                                        

A World of Strangers                                                                                                   

Class, Race, and the Urban Experience                                                                     

The City as Gesellschaft: A Reassessment                                                              

The Social Environment: Gemeinschaft                                                                          

Urban Networks                                                                                                             

Identifying with the City                                                                                              

The City as Gemeinschaft: A Reassessment                                                            

The Texture of the City                                                                                                      

Humanizing the City                                                                                                          

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

Chapter 7      Geography and Spatial Perspectives: Making Sense of Space              

Urban Geography                                                                                                                

The Location of Cities                                                                                                  

Why Cities Are Where They Are                                                                              

The Shape of the City                                                                                                         

The Radiocentric City                                                                                                  

The Gridiron City                                                                                                           

Urban Ecology: The Chicago School                                                                              

The Ecological Theory of Urban Development                                                       

The Concentric Zone Hypothesis                                                                              

Criticisms of the Chicago School                                                                               

Urban Ecology: Other Theories                                                                                       

The Sector Theory                                                                                                         

The Multiple Nuclei Theory                                                                                        

Social Area Analysis                                                                                                    

Factorial Ecology                                                                                                           

The Los Angeles School and Postmodernism                                                              

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

Chapter 8      Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture                                    

The City and the Countryside                                                                                           

Interdependencies                                                                                                        

Urban Dominance                                                                                                         

The City and Civilization                                                                                                    

Oswald Spengler: The "Soul" of the City                                                                 

Lewis Mumford: The City as the Center of Civilization                                          

 

Daniel J. Monti: The Civic Culture of the City

 

The City and Societal Culture

v CASE STUDY: Ming Peking                                                                                      

Physical Structure                                                                                                         

Symbolism                                                                                                                      

v CASE STUDY: Hellenic Athens                                                                                 

The Preclassical Period                                                                                                

The Golden Age                                                                                                            

Behind the Glory                                                                                                            

Ming Peking and Athens: A Comparison                                                                      

The Culture of Capitalism and the City                                                                           

The Capitalist City                                                                                                         

The Industrial Revolution                                                                                           

Urban Life as Economics                                                                                             

Assets and Debits                                                                                                        

v CASE STUDY: Communist Beijing                                                                          

The Emergence of Modern Beijing                                                                             

Urban Life as Politics                                                                                                   

The Difficulties of Urban Life                                                                                     

Economic Reform                                                                                                           

A Rising Consumerism                                                                                                

Summary                                                                                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

Chapter 9      The New Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism                             

Urban Economics: The Traditional Perspective                                                            

Central Place Theory                                                                                                    

The General Pattern of Land Use                                                                               

Criticisms of the Basic Theory                                                                                    

Political Economy: The "New" Perspective                                                                   

Henri Lefebvre: Redefining the Study of Cities                                                       

Urban Areas as Themed Environments

 

David Harvey: The Baltimore Study                                                                          

Manuel Castells: Updating Marx                                                                                

Allen Scott: Business Location and the Global Economy                              

Horizontal Integration                                                                                              

John Logan and Harvey Molotch: Urban Growth Machines                                

The Global Economy                                                                                                         

Deindustrialization

Economic Restructuring            

 

A World System                                                                                                            

Urban Political Economy: Four Principles                                                                      

The Urbanization of Poverty                                                                                             

The Developing World                                                                                                

The Developed World                                                                                                 

Summary                                                                                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

 PART   IV      The STRUCTURE of the City

Chapter 10    Stratification and Social Class: Urban and Suburban Lifestyles           

Social Stratification

Social Class Distinctions

Income Distribution Nationwide

Incomes Within and Outside Cities

Poverty Nationwide

Poverty Within and Outside Cities

A Cautionary Note

Urban Social Class Diversity

Upper-Class Urban Neighborhoods

Middle-Class Urban Neighborhoods

Working-Class Urban Neighborhoods

Mixed-Income Urban Neighborhoods

Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

The Homeless

Suburban Social Class Diversity

Upper-Income Suburbs

Middle-Income Suburbs

Working-Class Suburbs

Suburban Cosmopolitan Centers

Minority Suburbs

Summary                                                                                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

Chapter 11    Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Urban Diversity                                     

Cities and Immigrants                                                                                                         

Ethnic Enclaves and Ethnic Identity                                                                          

Ethnic Change                                                                                                               

Racial and Ethnic Minorities                                                                                            

African Americans                                                                                                        

Asian Americans                                                                                                           

Hispanic Americans                                                                                                     

Muslim Americans

 

Native Americans                                                                                                          

Women and Urban Life                                                                                                     

Work                                                                                                                               

Urban Space                                                                                                                  

The Public Sphere                                                                                                         

v CASE STUDY: Chicago, "City of the Big Shoulders"                                          

Early Chicago                                                                                                                

The Burning and Rebuilding of Chicago                                                                  

Jane Addams and Hull House                                                                                    

Chicago in the Early Twentieth Century                                                                   

The Postwar Period                                                                                                      

Chicago Today                                                                                                              

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                           

Key Terms

 

Chapter 12    Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems                   

Housing: A Place to Live                                                                                                   

Adequate Housing: Who Has It?                                                                              

Housing Problems: A Brief History                                                                           

Public Housing                                                                                                               

Deterioration and Abandonment in the Inner City                                                  

The Inner City Today: A Revival?                                                                             

The New Urbanism                                                                                                        

Education: The Urban Challenge                                                                                     

Meeting the "No Child Left Behind" Challenge

Magnet Schools                                                                                                            

School Vouchers                                                                                                            

Charter Schools                                                                                                             

Crime: Perception and Reality                                                                                           

Public Perception of Crime                                                                                          

Explaining High-Crime Areas                                                                                      

Effects of Crime on Everyday Life                                                                               

What Is the Solution?                                                                                                  

Summary                                                                                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

 PART  V       Global Urbanization

Chapter 13    Cities in the Developing World                                                            

Historical Context                                                                                                               

Latin American Cities                                                                                                   

African Cities                                                                                                                  

Middle Eastern Cities                                                                                                   

Asian Cities                                                                                                                    

Common Legacies                                                                                                         

The Modern Era                                                                                                                  

Latin American Cities                                                                                                   

African Cities                                                                                                                 

Middle Eastern Cities                                                                                                    

Asian Cities                                                                                                                   

Common Problems                                                                                                         

Summary: World Urbanization in Perspective                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

 PART  VI      The Planning and Evaluation of Cities

Chapter 14    Planning the Urban Environment                                                        

Visions                                                                                                                                 

City Planning in World History                                                                                       

Why Plan?                                                                                                                     

Planning in the Industrial Era: 1800–1900                                                                  

The "City Beautiful" Movement                                                                                

"Till We Have Built Jerusalem": The New Towns Movement                                    

A Socialist–Feminist New Town                                                                                

Later New Towns in Great Britain                                                                              

New Towns in Western Europe, Australia, and Brazil                                            

New Towns in the United States                                                                                

Have They Worked? Criticisms of New Towns                                                        

Utopia Unlimited: Architectural Visions                                                                         

Le Corbusier: The Radiant City                                                                                   

Frank Lloyd Wright: Broadacre City                                                                           

Paolo Soleri: The Arcology                                                                                         

Utopia’s Limitations: A Critique                                                                                 

Meanwhile . . . Downtown: More Focused Urban Planning                                       

Sidewalks, Neighborhoods, and Local Initiative                                                     

Open Spaces: Squares, Parks, and Architecture                                                      

Rouse Revisited: The Middle Ground                                                                       

The Realities of Urban Planning                                                                                       

Economics and Politics                                                                                                

The Difference That Values Make                                                                             

v CASE STUDY: Toronto, Ontario                                                                               

The Physical Setting                                                                                                    

History                                                                                                                             

Creation of a Metropolitan Government                                                                   

Two Phases of Urban Planning                                                                                  

Toronto Today                                                                                                               

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                           

Key Terms

 

References                                                                                                              

Photo Credits                                                                                                           

Index

Preface

PREFACE:

PREFACE

As we begin a new century—indeed, a new millennium—the world stands on the brink of a historic landmark: In a few years, a majority of the planet's people will live in cities. Urban living is rapidly becoming the norm for members of our species. Surely, there is no more compelling reason to undertake the study of cities and urban life.

THE BASIC APPROACH

The approach of this text is multidisciplinary but fundamentally sociological. Readers will find here the enduring contributions of the classical European social thinkers, including Max Weber, Karl Marx, Ferdinand Tönnies, Georg Simmel, and Emile Durkheim, as well as those of early pioneers in North America, including Robert Park and Louis Wirth. Of course, many men and women have stood on the shoulders of these giants and extended our understanding. Thus, this text also considers the ideas of a host of contemporary urbanists, including Henri Lefebvre, Jane Jacobs, Manuel Castells, John Logan, Harvey Molotch, Kevin Lynch, Lyn Lofland, Carol Stack, and Herbert Gans.

Yet, as this string of well-known names suggests, urban studies rests on research and theory developed within many disciplines. Cities and Urban Life, therefore, is truly a multidisciplinary text that draws together the work of historians (Chapter 2: "The Origins and Development of the World's Cities," and Chapter 3: "The Development of North American Cities"); sociologists (Chapter 4: "Cities and Suburbs of the Twenty-First Century," Chapter 5: "Urban Sociology: The Classic Statements," Chapter 10: "Social Class: Urban and SuburbanLifestyles,"Chapter 11: "Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Urban Diversity," and Chapter 12: "Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems"); social psychologists (Chapter 6: "Social Psychology: The Urban Experience"); geographers and urban ecologists (Chapter 7: "Geography and Ecology: Making Sense of Space"); political economists working within various disciplines (Chapter 9: "Structural Imperatives: Urban Political Economy"); anthropologists (Chapter 8: "Urban Anthropology: The City and Culture," and Chapter 13: "Developing World Cities"); and architects as well as city planners (Chapter 14: "Planning the Urban Environment").

THE ORGANIZATION
OF THIS TEXT

Part I of the text, "Understanding the City," introduces the main questions and themes that resonate throughout the book (Chapter 1). Part II, "History of Cities and New Trends," surveys the historical development of cities, noting how urban life has often differed in striking ways from contemporary patterns we take for granted (Chapters 2 and 3), and the current trends of sprawl, edge cities, and gated communities that are shaping the cities and suburbs of the new century (Chapter 4). Part III, "Disciplinary Perspectives," highlights the various disciplinary orientations that, together, have so advanced our understanding of cities (Chapters 5 through 9). Part IV, "The Anatomy of the City," focuses on the social organization of today's cities in North America, highlighting how urban living reflects the importance of social class (Chapter 10), race, ethnicity, and gender (Chapter 11), as well as forcing us to confront vexing problems such as housing, education, and crime (Chapter 12). Part V, "Global Urbanization," offers a look at the history and current urbanization in four major world regions: Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia (Chapter 13). It is in these areas of the world that urbanization is now most rapid, with cities reaching unprecedented size. Finally, Part VI, ""The Planning and Evaluation of Cities," examines the architectural, social, and political dimensions of urban planning, as well as points out the problems that prevent cities from living up to their promise of improving everyone's lives (Chapter 14).

FOUR KEY THEMES

This attempt to tell the urban story will lead us to consider a wide range of issues and to confront countless questions. Yet four main themes guide this exploration, and it is useful to make these explicit. To put it another way, whatever else a student entering the field of urban studies might learn, he or she must pay attention to these themes:

  1. Cities and urban life vary according to time and place. Since the idea of the city came to our ancestors some 10,000 years ago, the urban scene has been re-created time and again, all around the world, in countless ways. The authors—informed by their own travels to some 60 of the world's nations—have labored to portray this remarkable diversity throughout this text.
  2. Cities reflect and intensify society and culture. Although cities vary in striking ways, everywhere they stand as physical symbols of human civilization. For example, nowhere do we perceive the inward-looking world of the Middle Ages better than in the walled medieval cities of that era. Similarly, modern U.S. cities are powerful statements about the contemporary forces of industrial capitalism.
  3. Cities reveal the best and the worst about the human condition. Another way to "read" cities is as testimony to the achievements and failings of a way of life. Thus, while New York boasts some spectacular architecture, exciting public parks, vital art galleries, and vibrant concert halls, it also forces us to confront chronic prejudice, wrenching poverty, and sometimes explosive violence.
  4. Cities offer the promise—but not always the reality—of a better life. At least since the time of the ancient Greeks, people have recognized that the city holds the promise of living " the good life." Yet all urban places fall short of this ideal in some ways, and in a number of today's cities, people are struggling valiantly simply to survive. The great promise of urban living, coupled with the daunting problems of actual cities, provokes us to ask how (or, indeed, if) we can intentionally and thoughtfully make urban places better. Although we are realistic about the problems, we remain optimistic about the possibilities.

SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE TEXT

Two special features warrant the attention of readers.

Boxes. First, each chapter contains several boxed inserts. These boxes are of five kinds. Critical Thinking boxes ask readers to grapple with a particular problem or question, assess some evidence, and reach a reasoned conclusion. Urban Living boxes provide a picture of the city "at street level"—that is, a close-up look at how people really live. Looking Back boxes amplify the historical content of the text, reminding us that our cities are built on the past, culturally and, indeed, literally. The City in Literature boxes are testimony to our belief that writers and poets (from Charles Dickens, Walt Whitman, and T. S. Eliot to Paul Theroux, John Steinbeck, Tom Wolfe, James Baldwin, Elijah Anderson, and Francine Garcia-Hallcom) have special abilities to capture the sights and sounds—and sometimes even the soul—of cities. Finally, Cityscapes present an extended literary account or scholarly analysis of some significant dimension of urban life.

Case Studies. The text includes eight case studies that offer a broad sociohistorical look at major cities in various regions of the world as they illustrate a chapter's key points. The cities profiled in these case studies are London (Chapter 2), New York (Chapter 3), Portland, Oregon (Chapter 4), Ming Peking (Chapter 8), Hellenic Athens (Chapter 8), Communist Beijing (Chapter 8), Chicago (Chapter 11), and Toronto (Chapter 14).

WHAT'S NEW
IN THE SECOND EDITION

The second edition of this text reflects a number of basic changes.

First, Chapter 4 ( "Cities and Suburbs of the Twenty-First Century") is a new chapter that extends the historical development of cities into the current postindustrial era and considers at length issues such as urban sprawl.

Second, Chapter 8 ( "Urban Anthropology: The City and Culture") enhances the comparative theme of the text, showing how societies at different times and in different places shape cities and urban life in distinctive ways.

Third, Chapter 12 ("Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems") has been expanded to include a discussion of the problems and debates surrounding urban schools.

Fourth, Chapter 13 ( "Cities in the Developing World") is a new chapter that surveys global urban development and highlights how cities in economically developing nations differ from those in rich countries such as the United States and Canada.

In addition, the entire text has been rewritten and updated, with new statistical data, the results of research published in the last four years, a number of new boxes and other features, and a new photo program.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, and most important, the authors wish to acknowledge the role played by James L. Spates, of Hobart and William Smith Colleges, in an earlier version of this book, titled The Sociology of Cities, coauthored by Jim Spates and John Macionis. Although Vince Parrillo and John Macionis have significantly revised that effort at many levels, Jim's ideas and enthusiasm for cities are still evident here.

Parrillo and Macionis wish to thank the editorial team at Prentice Hall for their efforts in making this text a reality. Particular thanks go to Nancy Roberts, publisher-sociology, for originally signing the project and helping to get the work under way, and to Sharon Chambliss, managing editor for sociology, for handling the review and production of this manuscript. Joan Stone did a masterful job in guiding the book through technical production and an on-time delivery date. We are grateful to Virginia Rubens for copyediting and to Melanie Belkin for preparing the index. Finally, we wish to thank Karen Pugliano for selecting the striking photographs that appear in the book.

For reviewing part or all of the manuscript and generously sharing their time and ideas with us, we gratefully acknowledge Ronald S. Edari, University of Wisconsin; Daniel Monti, Boston University; Leo Pinard, California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo; David Prok, Baldwin Wallace College; and James D. Tasa, Erie Community College-North.

John J. Macionis
Kenyon College
Gambier, Ohio 43022
E-mail: macionis@kenyon.edu
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