This casebook provides the most complete treatment available of constitutional tort actions under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 and Bivens. The elaborate doctrines of official immunity are examined in detail, as is the possibility of direct governmental liability under Monell v. Dept. of Social Services. The third edition also explores the relation of § 1983 to the Eleventh Amendment and the all-important topic of attorney’s fees. Finally, it provides generous introductory treatment of modern civil rights actions under Titles VII and IX and of the evolution and scope of structural reform litigation.