This book looks at the 20-year association of the Bharat Gyan Vigyan Samiti (BGVS) with the government of India in the shared space of the literacy campaigns. The social development activities of the BGVS have spanned the length and breadth of the country, with a presence in a reported number of 22 states and 316 districts. The involvement in mobilization and organization for literacy during the initial years was followed up by addressing the contexts of literacy through various social development initiatives. The relationship between this major civil society process and the state has been quite unique from a national and even global perspective in terms of scale, duration, and impact, with varying degrees of success over time at the level of policy and field practice. The book also draws on the author's experience with India's literacy campaigns and social developmental objectives. The narrative provides relevant theoretical and strategic insights into the contentious relation between civil society processes and the state. The study should be useful for academics, practitioners, and policy makers in the sphere of the social transformatory potential of education.