Army Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (ATTP) 3-37.31 is the Army's doctrinal publication for mitigating civilian casualties (CIVCASs). The purpose is to provide doctrinal guidance for minimizing CIVCAS incidents and managing their consequences. The focus is on guiding Army leaders conducting operations involving armed conflict. This ATTP is organized into two chapters and two appendixes. Chapter 1 discusses the foundations of CIVCAS mitigation, including its purpose, key definitions, legal authorities, the significance of protecting civilians from armed conflict, application of the mission command philosophy to CIVCAS mitigation, and considerations for mission analysis. Chapter 2 expands on the Army's integrated approach to CIVCAS mitigation by introducing a CIVCAS mitigation cycle-prepare, plan, employ, assess, respond, and learn-that integrates with other Army processes and ensures effective mitigation. Appendix A discusses nonlethal capabilities. Appendix B provides detailed guidance for preparing reports and conducting investigations. The proponent has made every effort to ensure Army CIVCAS mitigation doctrine is consistent with appropriate laws, policies, regulations, and directives of the federal government, Department of Defense, and Department of the Army. In any case where Army doctrine differs, the laws, policies, regulations, and directives take precedence. This manual provides doctrinal guidance only and does not substitute for authoritative legal counsel. Army units should consult a staff judge advocate when conducting operations.