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Classic Philosophical Questions Plus MySearchLab with eText / Edition 14

Classic Philosophical Questions Plus MySearchLab with eText / Edition 14

by Robert J. Mulvaney


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205861101
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 11/30/2011
Pages: 552
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents




Part 1: Socrates and the Nature of Philosophy
Part 2: Philosophy of Religion
Part 3: Ethics
Part 4: Knowledge
Part 5: Metaphysics
Part 6: Social and Political Philosophy
Part 7: Aesthetics
Part 8: Philosophy and the Good Life


Part 1: Socrates and the Nature of Philosophy

What is Philosophy?
The Euthyphro: Defining Philosophical Terms
The Apology: Socrates’ Trial and Defense
The Crito: Socrates’ Refusal to Escape
The Phaedo: Virtue and Socrates’ View of Death

Part 2: Philosophy of Religion

Can We Prove That God Exists?
St. Anselm: The Ontological Argument
St. Thomas Aquinas: The Cosmological Argument
William Paley: The Teleological Argument
Blaise Pascal: It is Better to Believe in God’s Existence Than to Deny it.

Does the Idea of a Good God Exclude Evil?
Boethius: God Can Allow Some Evil.
David Hume: A Good God Would Exclude Evil.
John Hick: Evil, Human Freedom and Moral Development

Part 3: Ethics

Are Ethics Relative?
Ruth Benedict: Ethics Are Relative
W. T. Stace: Ethics Are Not Relative

Are Humans Always Selfish?
Humans Are Always Selfish: Glaucon’s Challenge to Socrates
James Rachels: Humans Are Not Always Selfish

Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation?
Aristotle: Happiness Is Living Virtuously
Jeremy Bentham: Happiness Is Seeking the Greatest Pleasure for the Greatest Number of People
Immanuel Kant: Duty Is Prior to Happiness
Friedrich Nietzsche: Happiness Is Having Power
Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialist Ethics
Virginia Held: Feminist Ethics Are Different

Part 4: Knowledge

What is Knowledge?
Plato: Knowledge Is “Warranted True Belief”

What Method is Best For Acquiring Knowledge?
Charles Sanders Peirce: Four Approaches to Philosophy

How Do We Acquire Knowledge?
René Descartes: Knowledge Is Not Ultimately Sense Knowledge
John Locke: Knowledge is Ultimately Sensed
Immanuel Kant: Knowledge Is Both Rational and Empirical.

How Is Truth Established?
Bertrand Russell: Truth Is Established By Correspondence
Brand Blanshard: Truth Means Coherence
William James: Truth Is Established by Pragmatic Means

Can We Know the Nature of Causal Relations?
David Hume: Cause Means Regular Association
David Hume: There Are No Possible Grounds for Induction

Part 5: Metaphysics

Why Is There Something Rather Than Nothing?
Parmenides: Being Is Uncaused
Lao-Tzu: Non-Being Is the Source of Being

Is Reality General Or Particular?
Plato: Universals Are Real
David Hume: Particulars Are Real

Of What Does Reality Consist?
René Descartes: Reality Consists of Mind and Matter
Paul Churchland: Reality Consists of Matter
George Berkeley: Reality Consists of Ideas
John Dewey: Reality Consists of Mental and Physical Qualities

Are Humans Free?
Holbach: Humans Are Determined
John Stuart Mill: Determinism and Freedom Are Compatible
Richard Taylor: Humans Are Free

Do Humans Have an Identical Self?
John Locke: Humans Beings Have an Identical Self
David Hume: Human Beings Have No Identical Self

Is There Life After Death?
Plato: The Soul is Immortal and Imperishable
Joseph Butler: Human Beings Survive Death
David Hume: Life After Death Is Philosophically Unprovable

Part 6: Social and Political Philosophy

What is Liberty?
Fyodor Dostoevski: Liberty and Authority
John Stuart Mill: Liberty is Independence from the Majority’s Tyranny
Martin Luther King Jr.: Liberty and Racial Prejudice
Simone de Beauvoir: Women’s Liberation.

Which Government is Best?
Thomas Hobbes: Monarchy Is Best
John Locke: Democracy Is Best
Karl Marx: Communism and Nonalienated Labor Is Best
Benjamin Barber: ‘Strong Democracy’ Is Best

Part 7: Aesthetics

What Constitutes The Experience of Beauty?
Plotinus: Beauty, Sensuous and Ideal

What is the Function of Art?
Aristotle: The Nature of Tragedy
Henri Bergson: The Nature of Comedy

Part 8: Philosophy and the Good Life

Two Classic Views of the Good Life
Epicurus and the Pleasant Life
Epictetus and the Life of Self-Control

What Gives Life Meaning?
Leo Tolstoy: Faith Provides Life’s Meaning
Albert Camus: Life’s Meaning Is Determined by Each Individual

What Is the Value Of Philosophy?
Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy to Individual Life.
John Dewey: The Value of Philosophy to Society


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