ISBN-10:
020527692X
ISBN-13:
9780205276929
Pub. Date:
07/23/1998
Publisher:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Classroom Assessment: What Teachers Need to Know / Edition 2

Classroom Assessment: What Teachers Need to Know / Edition 2

by W. Popham

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Overview

Classroom Assessment: What Teachers Need to Know / Edition 2

Most teachers will agree that one of the most difficult issues they must grapple with on a daily basis regards assessment. How are teachers to evaluate their students? What is the fair way? The most productive way? And the way that will benefit all involved? And how do teachers explain assessment issues to parents? These questions are as fundamental to today's classroom as the answers are difficult to forge. This book is thus intended to help classroom teachers deal with assessment on a daily basis, promoting the idea that the results of assessment activities should improve the quality of the decisions they make about their own students. This book presents a practical set of guidelines for teachers regarding the daily decisions they must face. In an easy-to-read, humor-filled format, the book strongly emphasizes the link between assessment and instruction. It focuses on that which is truly critical for teachers to know about testing their students in a friendly, non-threatening fashion. The Chapter Summaries, Self-Check exercises and Pondertime questions in each chapter highlight important points, providing thought-provoking questions to key educational assessment issues. Topics include validity, reliability of assessment, absence of bias, and portfolio assessment. Teachers and educational administrators.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205276929
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date: 07/23/1998
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 324
Product dimensions: 7.02(w) x 9.16(h) x 0.64(d)

Table of Contents

To the Reader ix
1 Why Do Teachers Need to Know about Assessment?
1(22)
Assessment versus Testing
2(2)
Why Should Teachers Know about Assessment? Yesteryear's Answers
4(4)
Why Should Teachers Know about Assessment? Today's Answers
8(5)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Assessment?
13(3)
A Three-Chapter Preview
16(2)
Chapter Summary
18(5)
2 Reliability of Assessment
23(18)
Stability
24(3)
Alternate-Form Reliability
27(2)
Internal Consistency Reliability
29(2)
Three Coins in the Reliability Fountain
31(1)
The Standard Error of Measurement
31(3)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Reliability?
34(1)
Chapter Summary
35(6)
3 Validity
41(26)
A Quest for Defensible Inferences
41(3)
Validity Evidence
44(3)
Content-Related Evidence of Validity
47(6)
Criterion-Related Evidence of Validity
53(3)
Construct-Related Evidence of Validity
56(3)
Sanctioned and Unsanctioned Forms of Validity Evidence
59(1)
The Relationship between Reliability and Validity
60(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Validity?
61(1)
Chapter Summary
61(6)
4 Absence-of-Bias
67(18)
The Nature of Assessment Bias
67(4)
Disparate Impact and Assessment Bias
71(1)
Judgmental Approaches
72(3)
Empirical Approaches
75(1)
Bias Detection in the Classroom
75(3)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Absence-of-Bias?
78(1)
Chapter Summary
79(6)
5 Deciding What to Assess and How to Assess It
85(26)
What to Assess
85(13)
How to Assess It
98(6)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about What to Assess and How to Assess It?
104(1)
Chapter Summary
105(6)
6 Selected-Response Tests
111(24)
Ten (Divided by Two) Item-Writing Commandments
112(3)
Binary-Choice Items
115(3)
Multiple Binary-Choice Items
118(2)
Multiple-Choice Items
120(6)
Matching Items
126(3)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Selected-Response Tests?
129(1)
Chapter Summary
130(5)
7 Constructed-Response Tests
135(22)
Short-Answer Items
136(3)
Essay Items: Development
139(5)
Essay Items: Scoring Students' Responses
144(7)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Constructed-Response Tests?
151(1)
Chapter Summary
151(6)
8 Performance Assessment
157(24)
What Is a Performance Test?
157(3)
Why Performance Assessment?
160(1)
Identifying Suitable Tasks for Performance Assessment
161(5)
Identifying Scoring Criteria
166(2)
Two Illustrative Performance-Test Tasks and a Scoring System
168(3)
Ratings and Observations
171(4)
Sources of Error in Scoring Student Performances
175(2)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Performance Assessment?
177(1)
Chapter Summary
177(4)
9 Portfolio Assessment
181(18)
Classroom Portfolio Assessment versus Large-Scale Portfolio Assessment
181(4)
Key Ingredients in Classroom Portfolio Assessment
185(6)
The Pros and Cons of Portfolio Assessment
191(2)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Portfolio Assessment?
193(1)
Chapter Summary
194(5)
10 Affective Assessment
199(18)
Why Assess Affect?
199(3)
The Other Side of the Argument
202(1)
Which Affective Variables Should Be Assessed?
203(2)
How Should Affect Be Assessed in Classrooms?
205(6)
What Kind of Inferences Are at Stake in Affective Assessment?
211(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Affective Assessment?
212(1)
Chapter Summary
212(5)
11 Improving Teacher-Developed Assessments
217(18)
Judgmentally Based Improvement Procedures
218(4)
Empirically Based Improvement Procedures
222(8)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Improving Their Assessments?
230(1)
Chapter Summary
230(5)
12 Instructionally Oriented Assessment
235(28)
Instructional Decisions and Assessment Results
236(6)
Planning Instruction to Achieve Assessment-Operationalized Objectives
242(16)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Instructionally Oriented Assessment?
258(1)
Chapter Summary
259(4)
13 Making Sense Out of Standardized Test Scores
263(20)
Standardized Tests
264(1)
Group-Focused Test Interpretation
265(2)
Individual Student Test Interpretation
267(11)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Interpreting Standardized Test Scores?
278(1)
Chapter Summary
279(4)
14 Appropriate and Inappropriate Test-Preparation Practices
283(14)
High-Stakes Assessment Arrives
283(2)
Assessment Results as Inference Illuminators
285(1)
Two Evaluative Standards
286(3)
Five Test-Preparation Practices
289(1)
Applying the Two Standards
290(2)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Test-Preparation Practices?
292(1)
Chapter Summary
292(5)
15 Evaluating Teaching and Grading Students
297(25)
Distinction Drawing
297(1)
Evaluation of Teaching and the Use of Assessment Data
298(4)
Assessment-Based Grading
302(9)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Assessment-Based Evaluation of Teaching and Grading of Students?
311(1)
Chapter Summary
311(4)
Appendix: Standardized Test Scores: Do They Really Show How Good Schools Are?
315(7)
Index 322

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