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Clean Water for Developing Countries

Clean Water for Developing Countries

by John A. Dracup


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The main purpose of this book is to assist the reader in choosing the best method for providing clean and safe water in a developing country. Most of the book’s content comes from the knowledge gained from:

Fifty-plus years of research and teaching in water resource engineering, hydrology and clean water for developing countries at both the University of California, Los Angeles, and the University of California, Berkeley.

Thirty-five years as an expert witness on numerous hydrologic and water resource engineering legal cases.

Clean water projects that I was involved with in Kenya, Peru, Honduras and Guatemala between 2011 and 2017.

Attendance at various courses including ones at the Centre for Affordable Water & Sanitation Technologies (CAWST) in Calgary, Alberta, Canada and at “Potters for Peace” in Dodgeville, Wisconsin.

My many colleagues and students.

The sites needing clean water can be diverse, e.g. an individual household, an entire village, a group of villages, a school, a clinic, an orphanage, etc. The focus of this book is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of how to bring clean water supplies to these entities. The optimal approaches will depend on both the Point of Use (POU), which may be large or small, and the state of the water (quantity, turbidity, type and concentration of pathogens/bacteria/viruses present) at the water source. Point of Use (POU) is the location where the water is to be consumed.

The majority of those impacted by unsafe water live in isolated rural areas of the developing world. Cost, sustainability, cultural differences and acceptance by those who will use the water are all important factors in providing clean drinking water to these people.

These factors include:

Community Involvement. By far, the most successful water enhancements in developing countries are tied to community organizations, particularly among the female population.

The Source of Water. It could be from groundwater, rainwater harvesting or surface water, such as springs, creeks, rivers, lakes and reservoirs.

The Quality of the Source Water. The water may have physical, biological and/or chemical pollution.

The Size of the Demand Population. Is it an individual household, a school, an orphanage, a small or large village, or a group of villages? Obviously, this affects the amount/volume of clean water needed, and this affects the methodology to be used.

The location of the population to be served. Are they close together or widely dispersed?

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781734352405
Publisher: John A. Dracup
Publication date: 01/15/2020
Pages: 302
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.63(d)

About the Author

John Dracup was born and raised in Seattle, Washington. He is a first-generation American, as his parents immigrated from Glasgow, Scotland, in the late 1920s. They settled in Seattle because the weather was similar to rainy Scotland. He holds degrees in civil engineering from the University of Washington, Seattle, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and the University of California, Berkeley.
He taught water resource engineering and hydrology at both the University of California, Los Angeles, and the University of California, Berkeley, for over 50 years. His research was in the areas of the optimization of large scale water resource systems and the impact of climate variability and climate change on hydrologic variables.
Professor Dracup is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Geophysical Union, among others. In 2001, he was a Senior Fulbright Scholar in Australia. In 2015, the trustees of the Rotary Foundation cited him for his efforts in supplying clean, safe water in developing countries. He has traveled to and developed clean water systems in Peru, Guatemala, Kenya, and Honduras. He lives in Santa Monica, California, with his wife and family.

Table of Contents

Preface vi

Introduction xvi

Safe Source 1

Sediment Removal 11

Filtration 21

3.1 Biosand 22

3.2 Membrane 38

3.3 Ceramic 60

Disinfection 71

Safe Storage 79

Safe Transport 85

Choosing the Fresh Water Source 89

Water Quality 103

Pumps and Energy 117

Sanitation 125

Hygiene 133

Cultural Issues 139

Financial Costs 145

Marketing 149

Sustainability 155

Case Studies 159

16-1 Agua Munda, LLC 159

16-2 AguaClara Cornell University 166

16-3 Aqua Clara International 169

16-4 Engineers without Borders USA 172

16-5 Potters for Peace 177

16-6 Rotary International Guatemala 181

16-7 Rotary International Myanmar 188

16-8 Rotary International Kenya 192

16-9 Rotary Club of Santa Monica, Catholic Relief

Services and Azure S. A. . 196

16-10 Ryan’s Well Foundation 202

16-11 The SkyJuice Foundation Inc. 207

16-12 UNICEF USA 210

16-13 Water and Sanitation Rotary Action Group

(WASRAG) 213

16-14 218

16-15 Water for Cambodia 222

16-16 Water Mission 226

Resource Guide 231

Appendix I: A Primer on Hydrology 247

Appendix II: A Primer on Water Resource Engineering 253

References 255

Index 257

Acknowledgements 271

About the Author 273

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