Pub. Date:
Facts on File, Incorporated
Cleaning up the Environment: Hazardous Waste Technology

Cleaning up the Environment: Hazardous Waste Technology

by Anne Maczulak


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Green Technology is an eight-volume set that examines the relationship between human activities and their sometimes harmful consequences for the environment and explores new methods of repairing and restoring the Earth. Approaching environmental issues confronting society from a technological perspective has spawned significant controversy, and he books in this set present all sides of the debate. Designed to complement science curricula, the set also covers relevant history and new green technologies and innovations that will contribute to the field in the future.

Cleaning Up the Environment: Hazardous Waste Technology is an overview of current and emerging methods used in cleaning up pollution. The book explains the advantages and disadvantages of the physical, chemical, and biological methods employed to remove hazardous waste from contaminated sites. It also presents step-by-step the processes of finding, testing, and cleaning hazardous waste sites, beginning with contamination assessment and ending with cleaned and restored environments. Citing actual examples and statistics, figures, and case studies, sidebars enhance fundamental concepts and give the reader a sense of the urgency of the issues related to hazardous waste treatment.

The volume includes information on

brownfield sites

commerce versus ecology


excavating pollutants

international waste-control programs

oxidation technology

remediation technology

the Superfund and its history

the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

the water supply

The book contains 50 color photographs and line illustrations, sidebars, five appendixes, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internetresources, and an index. Green Technology is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who seek information on the important issues that affect the environment worldwide.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780816071982
Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/01/2009
Series: Green Technology Series
Pages: 240
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.70(d)
Age Range: 14 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction xiii

1 Measuring Contamination 1

Pollution and Contamination 2

Air, Land, and Water 5

Harmful Indoor Chemicals 6

Sampling Polluted Sites 7

Analytical Tools and Instruments 11

Principles of Good Science 12

Parts per Million and Parts per Billion 19

Types of Contamination Cleanup 19

Case Study: Birth of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 20

International Programs in Waste Control 23

Conclusion 25

2 Excavation of Contaminated Sites 26

The Excavation Process 28

The Pros and Cons of Excavation 32

Volatile Organic Compounds 35

Handling Excavated Pollutants 36

Case Study: U.S. Army's Rocky Mountain Arsenal 37

Extraction and Stabilization 38

Conclusion 41

3 Microbes and Plants for Toxic Cleanup 43

Remediation Technology Emerges 45

Priority Pollutants 46

Detoxification Biology 48

Natural Degradation 54

Bioengineered Microbes 57

Case Study: Bioaugmentation-the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill 58

Bacillus thuringiensis 63

Phytoremediation-Using Plants for Toxic Cleanup 64

Conclusion 71

4 Oxidation Technology 73

Waste Oxidation History and Current Methods 74

Oxidation Reactions in Waste Detoxification 78

Ozone 79

Catalytic Oxidation 80

Thermal Oxidation 82

Case Study: Controlling Diesel Pollution in Massachusetts 84

Innovations in Pollution Control 84

Conclusion 87

5 Brownfield Sites 89

The History of Toxic Site Designation 91

The History of Love Canal 94

Types of Brownfields 96

Used Motor Oil 98

Cleanup and Restoration 102

Real Estate and the Economy 105

Case Study: Responding to MTBE Pollution 106

Redeveloping Brownfield Sites109

Conclusion 111

6 Remediating the Water Supply 112

How Our Water Became Polluted 118

Thermal Pollution of Water 126

Commerce versus Ecology 127

Freshwaters 129

Coasts and Oceans 134

Case Study: Volunteers Tackle Oil-Damaged Shorelines 138

Groundwater 142

Surface Water Treatment 144

The Global Ocean 146

Clean Water Technology and Law 148

Conclusion 153

7 Superfund Sites 155

History of Superfund 156

Today's Superfund Sites 160

Case Study: The Berkeley Pit 166

Managing Hazardous Waste 168

Superfund Site Groundwater 170

The Toxics Release Inventory 171

Costs 173

Environmental law 173

Superfund Site Delisting 174

New Cleanup Technologies 177

Conclusion 179

8 Future Needs 181

Appendixes 185

Glossary 196

Further Resources 203

Index 215

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