Cleopatra ruled Ptolemaic Egypt from 51-30 B.C., and was the last Macedonian ruler of that country. She first ruled jointly with her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, but her romantic liaisons with two of the most famous Romans of their day ensured Cleopatra's undying fame and place in history. Her relationship with Julius Caesar established her firmly upon the throne. When Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March in 44 B.C., Cleopatra returned from Rome to Egypt and began an ill-fated love affair with the brilliant but self-indulgent Roman commander, Marc Antony. Their relationship was bitterly opposed by his brother-in-law Octavian (who became Emperor Augustus), and in 32 B.C. Rome declared war on Egypt. A decisive naval defeat at the Battle of Actium, off the west coast of Greece, sent the lovers back to Egypt where they committed suicide as Octavian captured the city - Cleopatra allegedly killing herself with an asp after Antony fell upon his sword.