ISBN-10:
0838512488
ISBN-13:
9780838512487
Pub. Date:
06/30/2000
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Clinical Competencies in Occupational Therapy / Edition 1

Clinical Competencies in Occupational Therapy / Edition 1

by Cindy A. Kief, Carol R. Scheerer

Paperback

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780838512487
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 06/30/2000
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 668
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 10.40(h) x 1.50(d)

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Preface

This manual is intended as an interactive manual for use by future occupational therapy (OT) practitioners. It is appropriate for use within an instructional setting, either as an alternative to lecturing or in a lab-type class, within an educational program that is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) of the American Occupational Therapy Association. Each student in a class should have a manual for his or her own use.

Fieldwork educators might also use this manual as they supervise students in a practice setting. Specific sections may be selected to supplement and augment the students' experiences. Additionally, this manual may serve as a learning tool for the OT practitioner who is returning to practice as well as the practitioner who is changing practice settings, as it reflects current content of the OT profession. In such a case it would be appropriate to use it as an independent study tool or in conjunction with the assistance of a mentor.

As OT practitioners we are charged with obtaining and maintaining competency. "Ensuring competency is key to both individual success and the continued success of the occupational therapy profession as a whole" (AOTA, 1998, p. 693). Currently there is no one suggested measure of competence but rather, as suggested by Salvatori (1996), a variety of methods are needed to do so. This manual presents such a variety of methods and represents the "can" level of Salvatori's (1996) "know-can-do" model. It teaches the basic knowledge, skills, and attributes that practitioners need to deliver effective services to clients. The professional behavior and judgments that an occupational therapy practitioner needs are many and varied. Herein is provided a solid foundation of the necessary beginning competencies needed by an OT practitioner.

Clinical reasoning and consideration of the context of practice are essential for occupational therapy, as you will see throughout this manual. You will be introduced to clinical reasoning attributes, especially the tacit knowledge to which Mattingly and Fleming (1994) refer. The information that is often taken for granted in the field of occupational therapy is enunciated clearly with the necessary components presented. However, advanced clinical reasoning is beyond the teaching scope of this book. Advanced clinical reasoning will become part of a practitioner's expertise with advanced practice and education.

A thorough review of the issues related to competency can be found in Developing, Maintaining, and Updating Competency in Occupational Therapy: A Guide to Self-Appraisal written by the Competency Task Force of the AOTA (1995). Additionally, the reader is directed to the American Journal of Occupational Therapy's special issue on professional competency (October 1998), in which experts from across the field detail the critical importance of competency as it relates to the viability of the individual practitioner and the profession. The emphasis on achieving, maintaining, and updating competency is evident throughout this significant journal issue.

Content Development

The content of this manual was developed by the first author's experience as an educator. Course content from many years of experience teaching occupational therapy assistant classes in an ACOTE-accredited program has been included. Visiting local facilities during a recent teaching sabbatical to include current ideas, theories and techniques used, solidified the content. It was then modified accordingly and aligned with the "Standard for an Accredited Education Program for the Occupational Therapy Assistant" (ACOTE of AOTA, 1998a) and the "Standards for an Accredited Education Program for the Occupational Therapist" (ACOTE of AOTA, 1998b). As such, this manual represents current clinical practice in the field.

Throughout this manual the words occupation and activity are often used interchangeably. At times, the field of occupational therapy differentiates between these two words, and here it is assumed that activity is purposeful and meaningful, while occupation represents the essence and the most powerful tool of the profession. The words assessment and evaluation are used as defined in the Standards of Practice for Occupational Therapists (AOTA, 1998). Assessment refers to the specific tool used and evaluation is the entire process of collecting data. The words intervention and treatment are also used interchangeably; this is the authors' preference rather than a recommended or recognized delineation.

In the field of occupational therapy the occupational therapy assistant (OTA) and the occupational therapist (OT) work together. The OT considers the OTA an important and vital team member. The OTA depends on the supervision of an OT. The relationship between the two professionals needs to be collaborative, mutually respectful, and interactive (Neidstadt and Creapeau, 1998). This manual exemplifies that relationship.

Purpose

The purpose of this manual is to give the future occupational therapy practitioner, including both the OTA and the OT, a hands-on method of learning. The OTA's role in the field of occupational therapy is primarily that of intervention and "doing," so this manual meets the learning needs of the OTA. The content is commensurate with his or her main function. For the OT this manual puts the practical aspects of practice in the forefront. At times OT students are inundated with theory during their course of study. This manual provides a welcome breath of fresh air and an enjoyable way of integrating aspects of the curriculum content that are germane to occupational therapy. Therefore, this manual meets the needs of both the OTA and the OT as they learn how to use occupation in therapy.

It is the goal of this manual to provide the occupational therapy practitioner with the following:

  • A comprehensible and enjoyable way of obtaining knowledge, skills, and attributes in preparation for the role of an OT practitioner.
  • A user-friendly way for students to learn the occupational therapy curriculum content found in accredited OTA and OT programs.
  • A format for the OT practitioner who is returning to practice or changing practice areas to learn the necessary basic and essential competencies of the profession.
Description

This manual has six chapters. The first two chapters deal with the fundamentals of OT. The remaining four are divided into main practice areas of OT: pediatrics, physical disabilities, mental health, and geriatrics. The content has been arranged in a developmental hierarchy, introducing basic OT concepts in the beginning and building on those concepts with differing degrees of difficulty throughout.

Each of the six chapters contain exercises that focus on the basic competencies of OT. There is a quote at the beginning of each exercise. These quotes have been collected from a variety of sources and are intended as food for thought. The quotes can be examined and dissected. Their meaning can be incorporated as part of the exercise.

Objectives of each exercise follow the quotes and are listed before the introduction of each exercise. A description and explanation of the exercise follow. Preparation for the activity of the exercise is to be accomplished by completing the readings listed and the study questions posed. The study questions take on a variety of formats, and most can be answered when the suggested readings are completed. The suggested readings are not intended to be all-inclusive but rather reflect an academic setting in which students may have access to some of the more recognized and commonly available textbooks. Specific pages where the answers to the study questions can be found have not been included. Rather, it is felt that if the student determines where in a source the content of the study questions is found, critical thinking skills are used and improved in doing so.

At least one and frequently several activities follow the study questions to put into practice the information contained in that exercise. The materials needed to complete each activity are listed, as well as instructions for doing so. A follow-up section directing the student to further evaluative and introspective activities is found at the end of each exercise.

Following the exercises, at the end of each chapter is an Application of Competencies section. Students are directed to turn to this section after doing each exercise to record the learning of at least one important application concept related to client intervention.

Following the Application of Competencies section is the Performance Skill section. The performance skills suggested in this section are specifically designed to provide further experience, reinforcement, and evaluation of the competencies the student has acquired. These activities pull together and synthesize the content just learned. These forms can be used to help provide feedback about one's professional behavior and skill performance. In determining final grades for all or parts of an instruction course, instructors may use the varied performance skills.

Students are directed to compile a portfolio, an ongoing display of their work. A portfolio can be used as an evaluative measure for grading purposes or as a way of documenting skills for a prospective employer. Content from the Application of Competencies and Performance Skills can be used for inclusion in such a portfolio.

At the very end of each chapter is a selection of case studies. The case studies have been taken from actual client charts. The case studies represent real-life scenarios, although the identity of the individuals has been changed. The diagnosis and abbreviations have purposefully been left in to further challenge the student's learning. The culture/religion and insurance information has been left unspecified so that variations can be added at will. As these situations change, it will then be clear how the occupational therapy process needs to change reflective of one's culture and reimbursement agency policies.

The case studies for the pediatric section follow a format that is typical in the educational system, in which a child's strengths and weaknesses are considered. The case studies for the other sections contain information that is typically available in hospital-based charts, including the client's social and medical history. All cases can be used as suggested and/or rearranged to be used with different exercises.

A list of references at the end of each chapter includes the full reference of items in the suggested reading list as well as those used in the exercises. This list should serve as a starting point for the resources that a future OT practitioner will need.

The perforated pages of this manual are intended to allow for selected removal of certain pages for review by an instructor in an academic program. The pages could also be removed for inclusion in a portfolio as suggested earlier.

A teacher's instructional guide accompanying this manual is available. Additional information available to supplement the suggested exercises can be found there along with the location of the answers to the study questions.

Summary

The content of this manual is designed to facilitate the learning of basic competencies needed in the field of occupational therapy by the OTA and OT. It exemplifies the collaborative teamwork inherently needed between the OTA and the OTR in clinical practice. On completion of the study questions and unique activities, a solid foundation for the occupational therapy practitioner will be laid. It is anticipated that this foundation will encourage and promote enjoyment of the lifelong learning process in one of the most exciting and rewarding career fields.

Table of Contents

1. Fundamentals I.

2. Fundamentals II.

3. Competencies in Pediatric Practice.

4. Competencies in Psychosocial Practice.

5. Competencies in Adult Physical Rehabilitation Practice.

6. Competencies in Geriatric Practice.

Appendix A: Analysis of Occupations.

Appendix B: Self-Awareness.

Appendix C: Professional Practice Records.

Index.

Preface

Preface

This manual is intended as an interactive manual for use by future occupational therapy (OT) practitioners. It is appropriate for use within an instructional setting, either as an alternative to lecturing or in a lab-type class, within an educational program that is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) of the American Occupational Therapy Association. Each student in a class should have a manual for his or her own use.

Fieldwork educators might also use this manual as they supervise students in a practice setting. Specific sections may be selected to supplement and augment the students' experiences. Additionally, this manual may serve as a learning tool for the OT practitioner who is returning to practice as well as the practitioner who is changing practice settings, as it reflects current content of the OT profession. In such a case it would be appropriate to use it as an independent study tool or in conjunction with the assistance of a mentor.

As OT practitioners we are charged with obtaining and maintaining competency. "Ensuring competency is key to both individual success and the continued success of the occupational therapy profession as a whole" (AOTA, 1998, p. 693). Currently there is no one suggested measure of competence but rather, as suggested by Salvatori (1996), a variety of methods are needed to do so. This manual presents such a variety of methods and represents the "can" level of Salvatori's (1996) "know-can-do" model. It teaches the basic knowledge, skills, and attributes that practitioners need to deliver effective services to clients. The professional behavior and judgments that an occupational therapy practitioner needs are many and varied. Herein is provided a solid foundation of the necessary beginning competencies needed by an OT practitioner.

Clinical reasoning and consideration of the context of practice are essential for occupational therapy, as you will see throughout this manual. You will be introduced to clinical reasoning attributes, especially the tacit knowledge to which Mattingly and Fleming (1994) refer. The information that is often taken for granted in the field of occupational therapy is enunciated clearly with the necessary components presented. However, advanced clinical reasoning is beyond the teaching scope of this book. Advanced clinical reasoning will become part of a practitioner's expertise with advanced practice and education.

A thorough review of the issues related to competency can be found in Developing, Maintaining, and Updating Competency in Occupational Therapy: A Guide to Self-Appraisal written by the Competency Task Force of the AOTA (1995). Additionally, the reader is directed to the American Journal of Occupational Therapy's special issue on professional competency (October 1998), in which experts from across the field detail the critical importance of competency as it relates to the viability of the individual practitioner and the profession. The emphasis on achieving, maintaining, and updating competency is evident throughout this significant journal issue.

Content Development

The content of this manual was developed by the first author's experience as an educator. Course content from many years of experience teaching occupational therapy assistant classes in an ACOTE-accredited program has been included. Visiting local facilities during a recent teaching sabbatical to include current ideas, theories and techniques used, solidified the content. It was then modified accordingly and aligned with the "Standard for an Accredited Education Program for the Occupational Therapy Assistant" (ACOTE of AOTA, 1998a) and the "Standards for an Accredited Education Program for the Occupational Therapist" (ACOTE of AOTA, 1998b). As such, this manual represents current clinical practice in the field.

Throughout this manual the words occupation and activity are often used interchangeably. At times, the field of occupational therapy differentiates between these two words, and here it is assumed that activity is purposeful and meaningful, while occupation represents the essence and the most powerful tool of the profession. The words assessment and evaluation are used as defined in the Standards of Practice for Occupational Therapists (AOTA, 1998). Assessment refers to the specific tool used and evaluation is the entire process of collecting data. The words intervention and treatment are also used interchangeably; this is the authors' preference rather than a recommended or recognized delineation.

In the field of occupational therapy the occupational therapy assistant (OTA) and the occupational therapist (OT) work together. The OT considers the OTA an important and vital team member. The OTA depends on the supervision of an OT. The relationship between the two professionals needs to be collaborative, mutually respectful, and interactive (Neidstadt and Creapeau, 1998). This manual exemplifies that relationship.

Purpose

The purpose of this manual is to give the future occupational therapy practitioner, including both the OTA and the OT, a hands-on method of learning. The OTA's role in the field of occupational therapy is primarily that of intervention and "doing," so this manual meets the learning needs of the OTA. The content is commensurate with his or her main function. For the OT this manual puts the practical aspects of practice in the forefront. At times OT students are inundated with theory during their course of study. This manual provides a welcome breath of fresh air and an enjoyable way of integrating aspects of the curriculum content that are germane to occupational therapy. Therefore, this manual meets the needs of both the OTA and the OT as they learn how to use occupation in therapy.

It is the goal of this manual to provide the occupational therapy practitioner with the following:

  • A comprehensible and enjoyable way of obtaining knowledge, skills, and attributes in preparation for the role of an OT practitioner.
  • A user-friendly way for students to learn the occupational therapy curriculum content found in accredited OTA and OT programs.
  • A format for the OT practitioner who is returning to practice or changing practice areas to learn the necessary basic and essential competencies of the profession.

Description

This manual has six chapters. The first two chapters deal with the fundamentals of OT. The remaining four are divided into main practice areas of OT: pediatrics, physical disabilities, mental health, and geriatrics. The content has been arranged in a developmental hierarchy, introducing basic OT concepts in the beginning and building on those concepts with differing degrees of difficulty throughout.

Each of the six chapters contain exercises that focus on the basic competencies of OT. There is a quote at the beginning of each exercise. These quotes have been collected from a variety of sources and are intended as food for thought. The quotes can be examined and dissected. Their meaning can be incorporated as part of the exercise.

Objectives of each exercise follow the quotes and are listed before the introduction of each exercise. A description and explanation of the exercise follow. Preparation for the activity of the exercise is to be accomplished by completing the readings listed and the study questions posed. The study questions take on a variety of formats, and most can be answered when the suggested readings are completed. The suggested readings are not intended to be all-inclusive but rather reflect an academic setting in which students may have access to some of the more recognized and commonly available textbooks. Specific pages where the answers to the study questions can be found have not been included. Rather, it is felt that if the student determines where in a source the content of the study questions is found, critical thinking skills are used and improved in doing so.

At least one and frequently several activities follow the study questions to put into practice the information contained in that exercise. The materials needed to complete each activity are listed, as well as instructions for doing so. A follow-up section directing the student to further evaluative and introspective activities is found at the end of each exercise.

Following the exercises, at the end of each chapter is an Application of Competencies section. Students are directed to turn to this section after doing each exercise to record the learning of at least one important application concept related to client intervention.

Following the Application of Competencies section is the Performance Skill section. The performance skills suggested in this section are specifically designed to provide further experience, reinforcement, and evaluation of the competencies the student has acquired. These activities pull together and synthesize the content just learned. These forms can be used to help provide feedback about one's professional behavior and skill performance. In determining final grades for all or parts of an instruction course, instructors may use the varied performance skills.

Students are directed to compile a portfolio, an ongoing display of their work. A portfolio can be used as an evaluative measure for grading purposes or as a way of documenting skills for a prospective employer. Content from the Application of Competencies and Performance Skills can be used for inclusion in such a portfolio.

At the very end of each chapter is a selection of case studies. The case studies have been taken from actual client charts. The case studies represent real-life scenarios, although the identity of the individuals has been changed. The diagnosis and abbreviations have purposefully been left in to further challenge the student's learning. The culture/religion and insurance information has been left unspecified so that variations can be added at will. As these situations change, it will then be clear how the occupational therapy process needs to change reflective of one's culture and reimbursement agency policies.

The case studies for the pediatric section follow a format that is typical in the educational system, in which a child's strengths and weaknesses are considered. The case studies for the other sections contain information that is typically available in hospital-based charts, including the client's social and medical history. All cases can be used as suggested and/or rearranged to be used with different exercises.

A list of references at the end of each chapter includes the full reference of items in the suggested reading list as well as those used in the exercises. This list should serve as a starting point for the resources that a future OT practitioner will need.

The perforated pages of this manual are intended to allow for selected removal of certain pages for review by an instructor in an academic program. The pages could also be removed for inclusion in a portfolio as suggested earlier.

A teacher's instructional guide accompanying this manual is available. Additional information available to supplement the suggested exercises can be found there along with the location of the answers to the study questions.

Summary

The content of this manual is designed to facilitate the learning of basic competencies needed in the field of occupational therapy by the OTA and OT. It exemplifies the collaborative teamwork inherently needed between the OTA and the OTR in clinical practice. On completion of the study questions and unique activities, a solid foundation for the occupational therapy practitioner will be laid. It is anticipated that this foundation will encourage and promote enjoyment of the lifelong learning process in one of the most exciting and rewarding career fields.

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