A thoroughly updated new edition of the essential referenceon the design, practice, and analysis of clinicaltrials
Clinical Trials Dictionary: Terminology and UsageRecommendations, Second Edition presents clear, precise,meticulously detailed entries on all aspects of modern-day clinicaltrials. Written and compiled by one of the world’s leadingclinical trialists, this comprehensive volume incorporates areas ofmedicine, statistics, epidemiology, computer science, andbioethics—providing a treasure trove of key terms andideas.
This new edition continues to supply readers with the A–Zterminology needed to design, conduct, and analyze trials,introducing a vocabulary for the characterization and descriptionof related features and activities. More than 300 new entries arenow included, reflecting the current usage practices andconventions in the field, along with usage notes withrecommendations on when to use the term in question. Detailedbiographical notes highlight prominent historical figures andinstitutions in the field, and an extensive bibliography has beenupdated to provide readers with additional resources for furtherstudy.
The most up-to-date work of its kind, Clinical TrialsDictionary, Second Edition is an essential reference for anyonewho needs to report on, index, analyze, or assess the scientificstrength and validity of clinical trials.
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About the Author
CURTIS L. MEINERT, PhD, is Professor in the Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, where he served as founder of the Johns Hopkins Center for Clinical Trials. He is a Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Heart Association, and the Society for Clinical Trials. Dr. Meinert has focused his research on the methodological issues in clinical trials, including their design, conduct, policy, and practice. He is the author of Clinical Trials Handbook: Design and Conduct (Wiley).
Table of Contents
FOREWORD 1ST EDITION ix
EXPLANATORY NOTES xv
Domain of coverage xvOrder and place of entries xvSynonyms, antonyms, and related terms xvLanguage and usage conventions xvSources and references xviAdages xviUsage notes xviEtymologies xviAbbreviations xviiIndex xvii
USAGE PRACTICES, CAUTIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS xix
Recommended and preferred usages xxComparative and relative terms xxiiRedundancies, repetitions, and unnecessary words xxiiiNot saying what we mean xxvHumanizing the inanimate xxvPre-, post-, non-, and un- words xxviSmall troublesome words xxviThe language of praise, implied value judgment, and presumptionxxviiEuphemisms xxixCurrency words xxixThe language of criticism xxxThe language of exception xxxiThe language of intimidation, implication, and position xxxiiThe language of division xxxiiiUsurpative language xxxiiiThe language of positivity and negativity xxxivPronouns xxxviiThe language of equivocation and weaseling xxxviiVacuous language and claims xxxviiiJargon xxxviiiTruth by declaration and repetition xxxix
LISTING OF ENTRIES xlviiDictionaryA 1B 15C 27D 63E 79F 93G 107H 113I 119J and K 137L 141M 151N 165O 175P 185Q 217R 221S 241T 273U 291V 297W 301X, Y, and Z 305
EQUATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Bayes' theorem 18Binomial distribution 22Binomial theorem 22Bivariate normal distribution 23Exponential distribution 90F-test statistic 93Gamma distribution 107Gamma function 107Geometric distribution 108Gompertz's curve 108Greco-Latin square 110Hypergeometric distribution 117Inverse sine transformation 133Kappa statistic 138Kendall’s tau 139Latin square 141Normal distribution 172Poisson distribution 199Square root transformation 256t distribution 273
Figure 1. Bar Diagram 16Figure 2. Bell-Shaped Curve 18Figure 3. Bimodal Distribution 21Figure 4. Box Plot 25Figure 5. Chi-square Distribution 31Figure 6. Circle Graph 32Figure 7. Closed Sequential Design 37Figure 8. CONSORT Chart 52Figure 9. Cumulative Frequency Distribution 60Figure 10. Exponential Distribution 90Figure 11. F Distribution 93Figure 12. Flowchart 99Figure 13. Forest Plot 101Figure 14. Frequency Polygon 103Figure 15. Gantt Chart 107Figure 16. Histogram 116Figure 17. Isometric Graph 136Figure 18. J-shaped Curve 137Figure 19. Left Skew Distribution 143Figure 20. Logistic Curve 147Figure 21. Normal Distribution 172Figure 22. Open Sequential Design 180Figure 23. Poisson Distribution 199Figure 24. Right Skew Distribution 239Figure 25. s-shaped Curve 241Figure 26. Scatter Diagram 243Figure 27. Survival Curve 270Figure 28. t Distribution 273Figure 29. Uniform Distribution 294Figure 30. Venn Diagram 299