Pub. Date:
Elsevier Science
Coatings Formulation

Coatings Formulation

by Bodo Muller, Ullrich Poth


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Coatings Formulation

This book teaches the science of coatings formulation in two steps. Each section describes the chemical composition of and, especially, the binders for the type of coating presented. This is followed by formulation advice and an analysis of existing recipes (e.g. starting formulations). This analysis consists in calculating the important characteristic values of coatings, such as the pigment/binder ratio, pigment volume concentration and, as necessary, the hardener addition level. Finally, examples of how to develop a real-life coating formulation are provided in the case of the most important types of coatings. All calculations based on recipes and formulations are worked through step by step and should therefore be intelligible to beginners as well.

The skills acquired in dealing with these recipes can also be employed in other applications, such as adhesives and sealants. This book focuses on the coating formulation itself, and how to arrive at it. It seeks to familiarize laboratory assistants, engineers and chemists with the practice of formulating coatings. It will also serve as a reference work for all readers interested in paints and coatings.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780815515302
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Publication date: 06/28/2006
Pages: 300
Product dimensions: 6.60(w) x 10.40(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

was responsible for developing waterborne metallic coatings and later adhesives and sealants. Since 1990 he has been Professor for Coatings Technology in Stuttgart/Germany. In 1996 he joined the University of Applied Sciences in Esslingen, near Stuttgart. Currently, he is Head of Studies of Chemical Engineering. He has published more than 100 papers.

Ulrich Poth has worked in research and development of binders for many years. After studying at the

Table of Contents

Introduction     17
Preliminary remarks     17
Comments on environmental protection     17
Paints and coatings as high-tech-products     19
Definitions     20
Coatings     21
Solidification of paints     21
Phase boundaries in coatings     24
Adhesion     25
Wetting of substrates     25
Adhesion forces and mechanisms     30
Adhesion promoters/adhesion-promoting layers     34
Silane adhesion promoters     34
Thin polymeric adhesion layers     35
Corrosion inhibitors, anticorrosive pigments and corrosion protection additives     37
Pigment dispersions     40
Fundamentals of disperse systems     40
Stabilization of dispersions     43
Electrostatic stabilization     45
Steric stabilization     47
Wetting and dispersing agents     48
Dispersing agents     48
Wetting agents (surfactants)     52
Wetting of pigments     56
Paint formulation     60
Ratio of binder to solid particles     61
Pigment/binder ratio and pigment volume concentration     61
Oil adsorption value     63
Influence of pigments on the properties of coatings     65
Development of paint formulations     66
Multi-coat systems     68
Solvent-borne paints
Paints forming films at ambient temperature     73
Physically drying paints     73
Paints based on cellulose nitrate     74
Structure and properties of cellulose nitrate     74
Combination partners for cellulose nitrate     76
Application of cellulose nitrate paints     77
Physically drying paints based on acrylic resins     79
Paints based on rubber modifications     80
Structure and properties of rubber modifications     80
Application of rubber modifications     81
Oxidatively curing paints     83
Oxidatively curing reactions     83
Binders for oxidative curing     85
Siccatives and anti-skinning additives     87
Oil varnishes     88
Alkyd resin paints     89
Paints based on epoxy ester resins     94
Two-components systems     96
Two-components polyurethane paints     97
Reactions of isocyanates     97
Isocyanate crosslinker (hardener for two-components polyurethanes)     99
Hydroxy resins for two-components polyurethane systems     102
Catalysts and accelerators for two-components polyurethane paints     104
Development of formulations of two-components polyurethane paints     105
Two-components epoxy paints     110
Base component: epoxy resins     110
Hardeners: polyamines and derivatives     113
Formulation of two-components epoxy paints     117
Stoving enamels     123
Definitions     123
Stoving enamels based on amino resins     123
Chemical structure of amino resins     123
Types and properties of amino resins     125
Combination partners for amino resins     129
Alkyd resins     129
Saturated polyesters     130
Acrylic resins crosslinked by amino resins     131
Comparison of alkyd resins, polyesters, and acrylic resins in stoving enamels     132
Crosslinking reactions     133
Catalysis of crosslinking reactions     135
Formulation of stoving enamels based on amino resins     137
Stoving coatings based on phenolic resins (resols)     143
Stoving enamels based on blocked polyisocyanates     145
Structure and properties of blocked polyisocyanates     145
Combination partners for blocked polyisocyanates     148
Comparison of blocked polyisocyanates and amino resins in stoving enamels     149
Formulation of stoving enamels based on blocked polyisocyanates     150
Other solvent-borne stoving enamels     153
Self-crosslinking acrylic resins     153
Self-crosslinking polyesters     153
Reaction of epoxy groups with acid derivates     154
Siloxanes in stoving enamels     154
Fastness to re-coating     155
Water-borne paints
Solubility respectively dispersibility of paint resins in water     161
Exceptional position of water as paint solvent     161
Distributions of polymers in water     162
Dispersions and emulsions of paint resins and polymers     163
Primary dispersions     163
Emulsions of liquid paint resins     166
Secondary dispersions     166
Acrylate secondary dispersions     167
Polyurethane secondary dispersions     167
Aqueous solutions of paint resins     169
Water-solubility of paint resins     169
Neutralizing agents     170
Cosolvents     171
Water-borne paints and coatings that dry/cure at ambient temperature     174
Physically drying paints     174
Film formation of primary dispersions     175
Latex gloss enamels     177
Facade coatings     178
Latex paints     178
Silicone resin paints     181
Silicate paints (two-components)     183
Latex silicate paints (one-component)     185
Water-borne paints, curing at ambient temperatures     187
Water-borne paints, curing oxidatively     187
Water-borne paints, based on alkyd resins     187
Hybrid systems     190
Water-borne two-components systems     191
Water-borne two-components polyurethane paints     191
Water-borne two-components epoxy paints     196
Water-borne stoving enamels     203
Guidelines for water-borne stoving enamels     203
Water-borne stoving enamels based on amino resins     204
Water-borne stoving coatings based on phenolic resins     213
Electrodeposition paints     215
Process of electrodeposition     215
Anionic deposition paints     218
Cationic electrodeposition paints     220
Solvent-free coatings
Two-components systems     229
Two-components polyurethane coatings     229
Two-components epoxy coatings     231
Coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins     233
Radiation curing     237
Definitions     237
UV curing     237
Principles of UV curing     237
UV coating process     238
UV initiators and sensitisers     240
Resins for UV coatings     243
Reactive diluents for UV coatings     246
Properties and application of UV coatings     246
Typical UV coatings     248
Electron beam curing     249
Powder coatings     251
Development of powder coatings     251
Production of powder coating materials and general properties     251
Application of powder coatings     254
Fluid bed sintering     254
Electrostatic spray application     255
Compositions of powder coatings and special properties     256
Thermoplastic powder coatings     256
Crosslinkable powder coatings     257
Powder coatings of epoxy resins     257
Epoxy resin / polyester hybrid systems     262
Polyester powder coatings      264
Polyesters, containing carboxyl groups     264
Polyesters, containing hydroxy groups     267
Acrylic resin powder coatings     268
Structure and production of acrylic resins for powder coatings     268
Epoxy acrylic resins     269
Acrylic resins, containing carboxylic groups     271
Acrylic resins, containing hydroxy groups     271
Future of powder coatings     271
General literature     273
Index     274

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