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The best-selling introduction to Cocoa, once again updated to cover the latest Mac programming technologies, and still enthusiastically recommended by experienced Mac OS X developers.
“Cocoa® Programming for Mac® OS X is considered by most to be the de-facto intro-to-OS X programming text.”
—Bob Rudis, the Apple Blog
“I would highly recommend this title to anyone interested in Mac development. Even if you own the previous edition, I think you’ll find the new and revised content well worth the price.”
—Bob McCune, bobmccune.com
If you’re developing applications for Mac OS X, Cocoa® Programming for Mac® OS X, Fourth Edition, is the book you’ve been waiting to get your hands on. If you’re new to the Mac environment, it’s probably the book you’ve been told to read first.
Covering the bulk of what you need to know to develop full-featured applications for OS X, written in an engaging tutorial style, and thoroughly class-tested to assure clarity and accuracy, it is an invaluable resource for any Mac programmer. Specifically, Aaron Hillegass and Adam Preble introduce the two most commonly used Mac developer tools: Xcode and Instruments. They also cover the Objective-C language and the major design patterns of Cocoa. Aaron and Adam illustrate their explanations with exemplary code, written in the idioms of the Cocoa community, to show you how Mac programs should be written. After reading this book, you will know enough to understand and utilize Apple’s online documentation for your own unique needs. And you will know enough to write your own stylish code.
Updated for Mac OS X 10.6 and 10.7, this fourth edition includes coverage of Xcode 4, blocks, view-based table views, Apple’s new approach to memory management (Automatic Reference Counting), and the Mac App Store. This edition adds a new chapter on concurrency and expands coverage of Core Animation. The book now devotes a full chapter to the basics of iOS development.
|Product dimensions:||7.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.30(d)|
Read an Excerpt
Chapter 12: Custom ViewsAll the visible objects in an application are either windows or views. In this chapter, you will create a subclass of NSView . From time to time, you will create a custom view to do custom drawing or event handling. Even if you do not plan to do custom drawing or event handling, by learning how to create a new view class, you will learn a lot about how Cocoa works.
Windows are instances of the class NSWindow . Each window has a collection of views. Each view is responsible for a rectangle of the window. The view draws inside that rectangle and handles mouse events that occur there. A view may also handle keyboard events. You have worked with several subclasses of NSView already: NSButton, NSTextField, NSTableView, and NSColorWell are all views. (Note that a window is not a subclass of NSView .)
The View HierarchyViews are arranged in a hierarchy (Figure 12.1). The window has a content view that completely fills its interior. The content view usually has several subviews. Each subview may have subviews of its own. Every view knows its superview, its subviews, and the window it lives on.
Here are the relevant methods:
- (NSView *)superview ;
- (NSArray *)subviews ;
- (NSWindow *)window ;
- The content view of a window.
- NSBox . The contents of a box are its subviews.
- NSScrollView . If a view appears in a scroll view, it is a subview of the scroll view. The scroll bars are also subviews of the scroll view.
- NSSplitView . Each view in a split view is a subview (Figure 12.2).
- NSTabView . As the user chooses different tabs, different subviews are swapped in and out (Figure 12.3).
Get a View to Draw ItselfIn this section, you are going to create a very simple view. It will simply appear and paint itself green. It will look like Figure 12.4.
Create a new project of type Cocoa Application (Figure 12.5).
Name it ImageFun
After the new project is created, open MainMenu. nib, and select NSView in the classes browser (Figure 12.6).
Press return to create a subclass, and name it StretchView (Figure 12.7).
Create the files for StretchView (Figure 12.8).
Save the files in the project directory.
Create an Instance of a View SubclassNow create an instance of your class by dragging out a CustomView placeholder and dropping it on the window (Figure 12.9).
Resize the view to fill most of the window. Open the info panel and set the class of the view to be StretchView (Figure 12.10).
Notice that creating an instance of a view is different from creating an instance of a controller object like AppController . To create an instance of AppController in Chapter 7, you used the Instantiate menu item. When creating a view, it is important that you attach it to a window and give it a size and location in that window.
Size InfoYour StretchView object is a subview of the window's content view. An interesting question is: What happens to the view when the superview resizes? There is a page in the info panel that allows you to set that behavior. Open the size info panel, and set it as shown in Figure 12.11. This means that it will grow and shrink as necessary to keep the distance from its edges to the edges of its superview constant.
If you wanted the view to stay the same size, you could let the distance between the edges of the view and the edges of the superview grow and shrink. In this exercise, you do not want this behavior. But in a parallel universe where you did, the inspector would look like this (Figure 12.12).
Save and close the nib file.
drawRect:When a view needs to draw itself, it is sent the message drawRect: with the rectangle that needs to be drawn or redrawn. This method is called automatically, and you will never need to call it directly. Instead, if you know that a view needs redrawing, you will send the view the message setNeedsDisplay...
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Cocoa: What Is It? 1
A Little History 1
Objects, Classes, Methods, and Messages 5
How to Read This Book 7
Typographical Conventions 7
Common Mistakes 8
How to Learn 8
Chapter 2: Let’s Get Started 11
In Xcode 11
In Interface Builder 15
A Look at Objective-C 25
What Have You Done? 31
Chronology of an Application 32
Chapter 3: Objective-C 35
Creating and Using Instances 35
Using Existing Classes 37
Creating Your Own Classes 48
The Debugger 58
What Have You Done? 63
Meet the Static Analyzer 63
For the More Curious: How Does Messaging Work? 65
Chapter 4: Memory Management 67
Living with Manual Reference Counting 69
Accessor Methods 77
Living with ARC 80
Chapter 5: Target/Action 83
Some Commonly Used Subclasses of NSControl 85
Start the SpeakLine Example 89
Lay Out the XIB File 90
Implementing the SpeakLineAppDelegate Class 94
For the More Curious: Setting the Target Programmatically 96
Debugging Hints 98
Chapter 6: Helper Objects 99
The NSTableView and Its dataSource 104
Lay Out the User Interface 107
Make Connections 109
Edit SpeakLineAppDelegate.m 110
For the More Curious: How Delegates Work 113
Challenge: Make a Delegate 114
Challenge: Make a Data Source 114
Chapter 7: Key-Value Coding and Key-Value Observing 117
Key-Value Coding 117
Key-Value Observing 120
Making Keys Observable 121
For the More Curious: Key Paths 126
For the More Curious: Key-Value Observing 127
Chapter 8: NSArrayController 129
Starting the RaiseMan Application 130
Key-Value Coding and nil 139
Add Sorting 140
For the More Curious: Sorting without NSArrayController 141
Challenge 1 142
Challenge 2 142
Chapter 9: NSUndoManager 145
How the NSUndoManager Works 146
Adding Undo to RaiseMan 148
Key-Value Observing 152
Undo for Edits 153
Begin Editing on Insert 156
For the More Curious: Windows and the Undo Manager 158
Chapter 10: Archiving 159
NSCoder and NSCoding 160
The Document Architecture 163
Saving and NSKeyedArchiver 167
Loading and NSKeyedUnarchiver 168
Setting the Extension and Icon for the File Type 170
For the More Curious: Preventing Infinite Loops 172
For the More Curious: Creating a Protocol 173
For the More Curious: Automatic Document Saving 174
For the More Curious: Document-Based Applications without Undo 175
Universal Type Identifiers 175
Chapter 11: Basic Core Data 177
For the More Curious: View-Based versus Cell-Based Table Views 191
Chapter 12: NIB Files and NSWindowController 193
Adding a Panel to the Application 194
For the More Curious: NSBundle 204
Chapter 13: User Defaults 207
NSDictionary and NSMutableDictionary 208
Setting Defaults 212
Letting the User Edit the Defaults 213
Using the Defaults 215
For the More Curious: NSUserDefaultsController 217
For the More Curious: Reading and Writing Defaults from the Command Line 217
Chapter 14: Using Notifications 221
What Notifications Are and Are Not 221
What Notifications Are Not 222
Posting a Notification 224
Registering as an Observer 225
Handling the Notification When It Arrives 226
The userInfo Dictionary 226
For the More Curious: Delegates and Notifications 227
Chapter 15: Using Alert Panels 229
Make the User Confirm the Deletion 230
Chapter 16: Localization 233
Localizing a NIB File 234
String Tables 236
For the More Curious: ibtool 239
For the More Curious: Explicit Ordering of Tokens in Format Strings 240
Chapter 17: Custom Views 241
The View Hierarchy 241
Get a View to Draw Itself 243
Drawing with NSBezierPath 248
Creating Views Programmatically 252
For the More Curious: Cells 253
For the More Curious: isFlipped 255
Chapter 18: Images and Mouse Events 257
Getting Mouse Events 259
Using NSOpenPanel 259
Composite an Image onto Your View 264
The View’s Coordinate System 266
For the More Curious: NSImage 269
Chapter 19: Keyboard Events 271
Create a New Project with a Custom View 274
For the More Curious: Rollovers 282
The Fuzzy Blue Box 284
Chapter 20: Drawing Text with Attributes 285
Drawing Strings and Attributed Strings 289
Making Letters Appear 289
Getting Your View to Generate PDF Data 291
For the More Curious: NSFontManager 293
Challenge 1 293
Challenge 2 294
Chapter 21: Pasteboards and Nil-Targeted Actions 295
Add Cut, Copy, and Paste to BigLetterView 298
Nil-Targeted Actions 300
For the More Curious: Which Object Sends the Action Message? 303
For the More Curious: UTIs and the Pasteboard 303
For the More Curious: Lazy Copying 304
Challenge 1 305
Challenge 2 305
Chapter 22: Categories 307
Add a Method to NSString 307
For the More Curious: Declaring Private Methods 309
Chapter 23: Drag-and-Drop 311
Make BigLetterView a Drag Source 312
Make BigLetterView a Drag Destination 315
For the More Curious: Operation Mask 319
Chapter 24: NSTimer 321
Lay Out the Interface 323
Make Connections 325
Add Code to TutorController 326
For the More Curious: NSRunLoop 328
Chapter 25: Sheets 329
Adding a Sheet 330
For the More Curious: contextInfo 335
For the More Curious: Modal Windows 336
Chapter 26: Creating NSFormatters 339
A Basic Formatter 341
The Delegate of the NSControl Class 347
Checking Partial Strings 348
Formatters That Return Attributed Strings 350
For the More Curious: NSValueTransformer 351
Chapter 27: Printing 353
Dealing with Pagination 353
For the More Curious: Are You Drawing to the Screen? 358
Chapter 28: Web Services 359
RanchForecast Project 360
Opening URLs 368
Challenge: Add a WebView 369
Chapter 29: Blocks 371
Block Syntax 373
Challenge: Design a Delegate 381
Chapter 30: Developing for iOS 383
Porting RanchForecast to iOS 383
Add a Navigation Controller 388
Pushing View Controllers 393
Chapter 31: View Swapping 397
Get Started 398
Add View Swapping to MyDocument 401
Resizing the Window 403
Chapter 32: Core Data Relationships 407
Edit the Model 407
Create Custom NSManagedObject Classes 409
Lay Out the Interface 411
Events and nextResponder 414
Chapter 33: Core Animation 417
Implicit Animation and Actions 423
Challenge 1 425
Challenge 2 425
Chapter 34: Concurrency 427
Improving Scattered: Time Profiling in Instruments 431
For the More Curious: Faster Scattered 438
Chapter 35: Cocoa and OpenGL 441
A Simple Cocoa/OpenGL Application 442
Chapter 36: NSTask 451
Challenge: .tar and .tgz files 460
Chapter 37: Distributing Your App 461
Build Configurations 461
Creating a Release Build 464
Application Sandboxing 466
The Mac App Store 468
Chapter 38: The End 471
What People are Saying About This
“Aaron’s book is the gold standard for Mac OS X programming books—beautifully written, and thoughtfully sculpted. The best book on Leopard development.”
—Scott Stevenson, www.theocacao.com
“This is the first book I’d recommend for anyone wanting to learn Cocoa from scratch. Aaron’s one of the few (perhaps only) full-time professional Cocoa instructors, and his teaching experience shows in the book.”
—Tim Burks, software developer and creator of the Nu programming language
“If you’re a UNIX or Windows developer who picked up a Mac OS X machine recently in hopes of developing new apps or porting your apps to Mac users, this book should be strongly considered as one of your essential reference and training tomes.”
—Kevin H. Spencer, Apple Certified Technical Coordinator
If you are developing applications for the Mac, or are hoping to do so, this book is just the resource you need. Does it cover everything you will ever want to know about programming for the Mac? Of course it doesn’t. But it does cover probably 80% of what you need to know. You can find the remaining 20%, the 20% that is unique to you, in Apple’s online documentation.
This book, then, acts as a foundation. It covers the Objective-C language and the major design patterns of Cocoa. It will also get you started with the three most commonly used developer tools: Xcode, Interface Builder, and Instruments. After reading this book, you will be able to understand and utilize Apple’s online documentation.
There is a lot of code in this book. Through that code, I will introduce you to the idioms of the Cocoa community. My hope is that by presenting exemplary code, I can help you to become not just a Cocoa developer, but a stylish Cocoa developer.
This third edition includes technologies introduced in Mac OS X 10.4 and 10.5. These include Xcode 3, Objective-C 2, Core Data, the garbage collector, and CoreAnimation.
This book is written for programmers who already know some C programming and something about objects. You are not expected to have any experience with Mac programming. It’s a hands-on book and assumes that you have access to Mac OS X and the developer tools. The developer tools are free. If you bought a shrink-wrapped copy of Mac OS X, the installer for the developer tools was on the DVD. The tools can also be downloaded from the Apple Developer Connection Web site (http://developer.apple.com/).
I have tried to make this book as useful for you as possible, if not indispensable. That said, I’d love to hear from you if you have any suggestions for improving it.
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
This book is very well written. The diagrams and examples shown in this book make the concepts understandable. Many features and topics are covered in this book in regards to Cocoa frameworks.