ISBN-10:
1441955682
ISBN-13:
9781441955685
Pub. Date:
03/04/2010
Publisher:
Springer US
Coding for Optical Channels / Edition 1

Coding for Optical Channels / Edition 1

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781441955685
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 03/04/2010
Edition description: 2010
Pages: 444
Sales rank: 1,032,074
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.40(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Historical Perspective of Optical Communications 2

1.2 Optical Transmission and Optical Networking 4

1.3 Optical Communications Trends 9

1.3.1 Migration to 100 Gb/s Ethernet and Beyond 9

1.3.2 Dynamically Reconfigurable Optical Networks 10

1.3.3 Software-Defined Optical Transmission 11

1.3.4 Digital Signal Processing and Coherent Detection 13

1.3.5 OFDM for Optical Communications 14

1.4 Forward Error Correction for Optical Communications and Networks 16

1.5 Organization of the Book 20

References 22

2 Fundamentals of Optical Communication 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Key Optical Components 26

2.2.1 Optical Transmitters 30

2.2.2 Optical Receivers 35

2.2.3 Optical Fibers 37

2.2.4 Optical Amplifiers 40

2.2.5 Other Optical Components 44

2.3 Direct Detection Modulation Schemes 49

2.3.1 Non-Return-to-Zero 49

2.3.2 Return-to-Zero 50

2.3.3 Alternate Mark Inversion 50

2.3.4 Duobinary Modulation Format 51

2.3.5 Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero 52

2.3.6 NRZ-DPSK 54

2.3.7 RZ-DPSK 54

2.4 Coherent Detection Modulation Schemes 55

2.4.1 Optical Hybrids and Balanced Receivers 61

2.4.2 Dominant Coherent Detector Noise Sources 63

2.4.3 Homodyne Coherent Detection 67

2.4.4 Phase Diversity Receivers 68

2.4.5 Polarization Control and Polarization Diversity 69

2.4.6 Polarization Multiplexing and Coded Modulation 70

2.5 Summary 72

References 72

3 Channel Impairments and Optical Communication Systems Engineering 75

3.1 Noise Sources 75

3.1.1 Mode Partition Noise 76

3.1.2 Reflection-Induced Noise 76

3.1.3 Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) and Laser Phase Noise 76

3.1.4 Modal Noise 78

3.1.5 Quantum Shot Noise 79

3.1.6 Dark Current Noise 80

3.1.7 Thermal Noise 80

3.1.8 Spontaneous Emission Noise 80

3.1.9 Noise Beat Components 81

3.1.10 Crosstalk Components 82

3.2 Channel Impairments 84

3.2.1 Fiber Attenuation 84

3.2.2 Insertion Losses 85

3.2.3 Chromatic Dispersion and Single Mode Fibers 85

3.2.4 Multimode Dispersion and Multimode Fibers 94

3.2.5 Polarization-Mode Dispersion 97

3.2.6 Fiber Nonlinearities 100

3.3 Transmission System Performance Assessment and System Design 110

3.3.1 Quantum Limit for Photodetection 112

3.3.2 Shot Noise and Thermal Noise Limit 113

3.3.3 Receiver Sensitivity for Receivers with Optical Preamplifier 114

3.3.4 Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio 114

3.3.5 Power Penalty Due to Extinction Ratio 115

3.3.6 Power Penalty Due to Intensity Noise 115

3.3.7 Power Penalty Due to Timing Jitter 116

3.3.8 Power Penalty Due to GVD 116

3.3.9 Power Penalty Due to Signal Crosstalk 117

3.3.10 Accumulation Effects 117

3.3.11 Systems Design 119

3.3.12 Optical Performance Monitoring 120

3.4 Summary 121

References 121

4 Channel Coding for Optical Channels 123

4.1 Channel Coding Preliminaries 124

4.2 Linear Block Codes 130

4.2.1 Generator Matrix for Linear Block Code 131

4.2.2 Parity-Check Matrix for Linear Block Code 132

4.2.3 Distance Properties of Linear Block Codes 134

4.2.5 Coding Gain 135

4.2.6 Syndrome Decoding and Standard Array 137

4.2.7 Important Coding Bounds 141

4.3 Cyclic Codes 142

4.4 Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem Codes 148

4.4.1 Galois Fields 148

4.4.2 The Structure and Decoding of BCH Codes 151

4.5 Reed-Solomon Codes, Concatenated Codes, and Product Codes 158

4.6 Trellis Description of Linear Block Codes and Viterbi Algorithm 161

4.7 Convolutional Codes 166

4.7.1 Distance Properties of Convolutional Codes 172

4.7.2 Bounds on the Bit-Error Ratio of Convolutional Codes 174

4.8 Summary 176

References 177

5 Graph-Based Codes 179

5.1 Overview of Graph-Based Codes 179

5.2 Convolutional Turbo Codes 181

5.2.1 Performance Characteristics of Parallel and Serial Turbo Codes 182

5.2.2 The PCCC Iterative Decoder 184

5.2.3 The SCCC Iterative Decoder 191

5.3 Block Turbo Codes 193

5.3.1 Overview of Turbo Decoding of BTCs 193

5.4 LDPC Codes 196

5.4.1 Matrix Representation 196

5.4.2 Graphical Representation 197

5.4.3 LDPC Code Design Approaches 198

5.4.4 LDPC Decoding Algorithms 199

5.4.5 Reduced Complexity Decoders 202

5.5 Concluding Remarks 205

References 205

6 Coded Modulation 207

6.1 Multilevel Modulation Schemes 207

6.2 Single-Carrier-Coded Modulation Schemes 211

6.3 Multidimensional Coded Modulation Schemes 218

6.4 Coded OFDM in Fiber-Optics Communication Systems 223

6.4.1 Coded OFDM in Fiber-optics Communication Systems with Direct Detection 224

6.4.2 Coded OFDM in Fiber-Optics Communication Systems with Coherent Detection 231

6.5 Summary 244

References 245

7 Turbo Equalization in Fiber-Optics Communication Systems 249

7.1 Channel Equalization Preliminaries 250

7.2 Turbo Equalization in Fiber-Optics Communication Systems with Direct Detection 257

7.2.1 Description of LDPC-Coded Turbo Equalizer 258

7.2.2 Large-Girth LDPC Codes 262

7.2.3 Suppression of Intrachannel Nonlinearities by LDPC-Coded Turbo Equalization 265

7.2.4 Chromatic Dispersion Compensation 267

7.2.5 PMD Compensation 269

7.3 Multilevel Turbo Equalization in Fiber-Optics Communication Systems with Coherent Detection 271

7.3.1 Description of Multilevel Turbo Equalizer 271

7.3.2 Mitigation of Intrachannel Nonlinearities by LDPC-Coded Turbo Equalization Based on Multilevel BCJR Algorithm 277

7.3.3 PMD Compensation in Polarization Multiplexed Multilevel Modulations by Turbo Equalization 279

7.4 Summary 282

References 282

8 Constrained Coding for Optical Communication 285

8.1 Introduction 285

8.2 Fundamentals of Constrained Systems 286

8.3 Construction of Finite-State Encoders 290

8.4 Decoders for Constrained Codes 294

8.5 Applications to Optical Communications 299

8.5.1 Use of Constrained Encoding 300

8.5.2 Combined Constrained and Error Control Coding 305

8.5.3 Deliberate Error Insertion 306

8.6 Concluding Remarks 308

References 309

9 Coding for Free-space Optical Channels 311

9.1 Atmospheric Turbulence Channel Modeling 312

9.1.1 Zero Inner Scale 313

9.1.2 Nonzero Inner Scale 313

9.1.3 Temporal Correlation FSO Channel Model 315

9.2 Coded MIMO FSO Communication 317

9.2.1 LDPC-Coded MIMO Concept and Space-Time Coding 317

9.2.2 Bit-Interleaved LDPC-coded Pulse-Amplitude Modulation 322

9.2.3 Bit-Interleaved LDPC-coded Pulse-Position Modulation 326

9.3 FSO-OFDM Transmission System 328

9.4 OFDM in Hybrid Optical Networks 337

9.4.1 Hybrid Optical Networks 338

9.4.2 Description of Receiver and Transmission Diversity Scheme 341

9.4.3 Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Optical Networks 343

9.5 Raptor Codes for Temporally Correlated FSO Channels 346

9.6 Summary 350

References 350

10 Optical Channel Capacity 353

10.1 Channel Capacity Preliminaries 354

10.2 Calculation of Information Capacity by Forward Recursion of BCJR Algorithm 360

10.3 Information Capacity of Fiber-Optics Communication Systems with Direct Detection 364

10.4 Information Capacity of Multilevel Fiber-Optics Communication Systems with Coherent Detection 370

10.5 On the Channel Capacity of Optical OFDM Systems for ASE-Noise-Dominated Scenario 372

10.5.1 Power-Variable Rate-Adaptive Polarization-Multiplexed Coherent-Coded OFDM 373

10.5.2 Adaptive-Coded OFDM for Communication Over GI-POF Links 376

10.5.3 Adpative-Coded OFDM for Radio-over-Fiber Technologies 378

10.6 On the Channel Capacity of Hybrid Free-Space Optical-Wireless Channels 381

10.6.1 Hybrid FSO-Wireless System Description 381

10.6.2 Adaptive Modulation and Coding 384

10.7 On the Channel Capacity of Optical MIMO MMF Systems 391

References 396

11 Future Research Directions in Coding for Optical Channels 399

11.1 Binary QC-LDPC Codes of Large Girth 401

11.1.1 Design of Large-Girth QC-LDPC Codes 401

11.1.2 FPGA Implementation of Large-Girth LDPC Codes 402

11.2 Nonbinary QC-LDPC Codes 405

11.3 Nonbinary LDPC-Coded Modulation for Beyond 100 Gb/s Transmission 408

11.4 Adaptive Nonbinary LDPC-Coded Modulation 413

11.5 Adaptive LDPC-Coded OFDM 416

11.6 Generalized LDPC Codes 420

11.7 LDPC-Coded Hybrid Frequency/Amplitude/Phase/Polarization Modulation 424

11.8 Concluding Remarks 428

References 429

Index 433

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