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Cognition: Theory and Applications / Edition 3

Cognition: Theory and Applications / Edition 3

by Stephen K. Reed


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Walking readers step-by-step through the topics and important theories of cognition - and the fascinating research that brings them to life - Stephen K. Reed offers an understandable and comprehensive overview of this quickly evolving field. Throughout the book, the author shows the direct relevance of cognitive psychology to many of our daily activities - and the dramatic impact of cognitive theories on other fields of psychology.

Keeping pace with intriguing new research, this Seventh Edition includes new material on such current topics as experience-based vs. theory-based judgments of retention, Barsalou's perceptual symbols theory, Kintsch's construction-integration model of text comprehension, associative vs. rule-based reasoning, and decision frames for risk dimensions. Prompts at the ends of appropriate chapters remind students to visit CogLab (see sidebar for details) for chapter-related experiments.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780534147600
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Publication date: 08/01/1992
Series: Experimental Psychology Ser.
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 400
Product dimensions: 7.87(w) x 9.84(h) x (d)

About the Author

Dr. Stephen K. Reed received his B.S. in psychology from the University of Wisconsin in 1966 and his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1970. Immediately thereafter, he worked as an NIH postdoctoral fellow at the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology at the University of Sussex in Brighton, England. Dr. Reed has enjoyed many years of teaching experience, first at Case Western University from 1971-1980 and then at Florida Atlantic University from 1980-1988. Currently Dr. Reed is a professor of psychology and also a member of the Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education at San Diego State University. With grants offered in part from NIMH, the National Science Foundation, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Dr. Reed's research on problem solving has been extensively published in such journals as Cognition and Instruction, Cognitive Psychology, The Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory and Cognition, and Memory and Cognition. He has also authored numerous articles and books, including PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN PATTERN RECOGNITION (Academic Press, 1973) and WORD PROBLEMS: RESEARCH AND CURRICULUM REFORM (Erlbaum, 1999).

Table of Contents

Part 1Information-Processing Stages
Chapter 1Introduction1
The Information-Processing Approach2
The Growth of Cognitive Psychology4
Cognition's Relation to Other Fields7
In the News 1.1 From Brain Scan to Lesson Plan10
Organization of This Book12
Study Questions14
Key Terms14
Recommended Reading15
Chapter 2Pattern Recognition17
In the News 2.1 Battling Bots19
Describing Patterns20
In the News 2.2 Why Do "They All Look Alike"?25
Information-Processing Stages30
Word Recognition35
Study Questions41
Key Terms42
Recommended Reading42
Chapter 3Attention43
In the News 3.1 Brain Study May Help Identify Those at Risk for Alzheimer's45
Bottleneck Theories46
Capacity Theories52
Automatic Processing57
In the News 3.2 Training Quarterbacks61
Study Questions67
Key Terms68
Recommended Reading68
Chapter 4Short-Term Working Memory69
Memory Codes80
Recognition of Items in Short-Term Memory84
Working Memory88
Study Questions94
Key Terms95
Recommended Reading95
Chapter 5Long-Term Memory97
The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model100
Control Processes104
In the News 5.1 Teaching Students How to Learn105
Improving Eyewitness Recall and Identification111
In the News 5.2 Wait, Don't Tell Me!112
Indirect Tests of Memory116
Study Questions122
Key Terms123
Recommended Reading124
Part 2Representation and Organization of Knowledge
Chapter 6Memory Codes125
The Levels-of-Processing Theory128
Supporting Evidence of the Levels-of-Processing Theory132
Criticisms and Modifications of the Theory135
In the News 6.1 Memories May Not Be Clear Even with "Unforgettable" Events141
Encoding Specificity and Retrieval142
In the News 6.2 Remembering in Tongues146
Study Questions149
Key Terms150
Recommended Reading150
Chapter 7Visual Images151
Visual Imagery and Learning153
Evidence for Images in Performing Cognitive Tasks161
In the News 7.1 Mental Images Help Athletes Train Their Bodies168
Limitations of Images171
Study Questions179
Key Terms179
Recommended Reading180
Chapter 8Categorization181
Concept Identification183
Natural Categories186
Categorizing Novel Patterns197
Study Questions206
Key Terms207
Recommended Reading207
Chapter 9Semantic Organization209
Organization and Recall211
Verification of Semantic Statements215
In the News 9.1 Study May Shed Light on Why False Memories Appear Real to People224
Clusters of Knowledge228
Schema Theory233
Study Questions240
Key Terms241
Recommended Reading241
Part 3Complex Cognitive Skills
Chapter 10Language243
Three Aspects of Language246
Psychology and Grammar251
In the News 10.1 Wording on Driver's Licenses Costs State Almost $250,000254
In the News 10.2 Psychologists' Research Can Help Computers' Language Skills256
Using Semantic Context in Sentence Comprehension257
Implications of Sentences265
Study Questions269
Key Terms270
Recommended Reading270
Chapter 11Comprehension and Memory for Text271
Prior Knowledge of the Reader272
In the News 11.1 Speed-Reading Can Undermine Learning273
Organization of the Text279
Kintsch's Model of Comprehension288
Study Questions296
Key Terms297
Recommended Reading298
Chapter 12Problem Solving299
Classifying Problems300
In the News 12.1 Pair of Crafty Inmates Melt Way Out of Jail305
Newell and Simon's Theory307
General Strategies311
In the News 12.2 Radiation Beams Target Tumors, Bypass Healthy Tissue315
Study Questions323
Key Terms324
Recommended Reading325
Chapter 13Expertise and Creativity327
Expertise and Reasoning329
Acquiring Expertise335
Study Questions350
Key Terms351
Recommended Reading351
Chapter 14Decision Making353
Making Choices354
Estimating Probabilities359
Combining Probabilities and Values363
In the News 14.1 Critics Want Government to Put a Standard Price on Human Life366
Risk Dimensions368
In the News 14.2 Lottery Fans Drawn to Bigger Prizes369
In the News 14.3 Most Jurors Unwittingly Deliver Biased Verdicts376
Study Questions380
Key Terms381
Recommended Reading382
Name Index415
Subject Index419

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