ISBN-10:
0137915756
ISBN-13:
2900137915759
Pub. Date:
06/13/2001
Publisher:
Pearson
Cognitive Development / Edition 4

Cognitive Development / Edition 4

by John H. Flavell
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Overview

Explores the psychology of children with updated, revised and expanded coverage of the field. Providing you with the latest research findings and opinions of distinguished authorities, it covers four areas: history, theory and methods; infancy and developmental psychobiology; cognitive development; and socialization, personality and social development. Included are integrative summaries, new perspectives and insights, critical analyses and explications of deficiencies in existing data and theoretical orientations. Going beyond merely a simple encyclopedic review of accumulated knowledge--the author offers a source book that encourages sophisticated thinking about fundamental issues, the formulation of questions and hypotheses and, in the long run, more good research.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900137915759
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 06/13/2001
Edition description: REV
Pages: 423
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

Read an Excerpt

Preface

The intended audience for this book is anyone who has reason to read about human cognitive development. We hope and expect that it will be comprehensible and interesting to readers with a very wide range of backgrounds: people interested in the topic but with little or no background in psychology; undergraduate and graduate students in general, developmental, cognitive, educational, and perhaps social psychology, various fields of education, and possibly other social sciences; perhaps even postdoctoral professionals in these areas. It certainly should be suitable as a text for either an undergraduate or a graduate course.

We include several features to make the book useful to a wide variety of readers. We cite references in the text, especially secondary sources that would provide quick access to much of the primary research literature in an area. Some readers will find these quite useful; others obviously will not. On the other side, we have explained the meaning of most technical terms used, even those that people with only a little background in psychology might know. We try to give a sense of the issues in the field, which we hope conveys the big picture of cognitive development. We have also tried to make the exposition straightforward and readable, and perhaps a little lighter and less formal than textbooks sometimes are. Our goal is to tell the story of children's thinking and how it develops. We personally do not enjoy reading most textbooks and therefore would like this one to be, if not actually enjoyable, at least not wholly unenjoyable.

This edition of the book differs from the third edition in a number of ways. We have thoroughly updated the chapters. Because of the "baby boom" in research on infancy we have expanded that chapter into two—one on perception and one on cognition. This emphasis reflects the dramatic surge of interest in early competencies in recent years. We reorganized two previously chronological chapters on preschool and grade school/adolescence into two new chapters. We labeled one "Representation and Concepts" and the other "Reasoning and Problem Solving." All of the information on theory of mind now is in the (formerly) social cognition chapter. Thus, the new edition is completely topically organized, after the two chapters on infancy that set the stage for later development.

Other changes include additional theoretical frameworks in the introductory chapter. In keeping with recent trends in the field, the book has less emphasis on Piaget and his developmental-stages conception of cognitive growth, and more emphasis on information-processing (including connectionism), sociocultural, theory-change, neo-Piagetian, neuroscience, and constraint approaches. We give special attention to new or rejuvenated areas, such as toddlers' representational abilities, young children's theories of mind, autobiographical memory, suggestibility, variability in the use of strategies, and biological or other kinds of constraints on cognitive development.

More generally we hope to convey both the fascinating nature of children's thinking and the excitement and change in work in this area. Knowledge about cognitive development is very much a work in progress.

We wish to thank various people who offered suggestions for this edition or the previous one: Brian Ackerman, Joseph Beato, Susan Carey, Darlene DeMarie, M Jeffrey Farrar, Derek Montgomery, Marylynn Pfeiffer, James Probert, Carolyn Shantz, and Allison Suffield. We also thank Cynthia Hardin for her assistance with the preparation of this edition, as well as Jennifer Gilliland at Prentice Hall.

John H. Flavell Patricia H. Miller Scott A. Miller

Table of Contents

Prefacevii
1Introduction1
A Definition of Cognition1
Perspectives on the Development of the Human Cognitive System3
An Overview of the Book26
Summary26
2Infant Perception29
Methods of Studying Infant Perception31
Vision33
Audition46
Relating Information from Different Senses54
Summary60
3Infant Cognition63
The Piagetian Approach64
The Object Concept72
Other Infant Achievements86
Some General Conclusions93
Summary96
4Representation and Concepts99
Symbolic-Representational Abilities100
Event Knowledge and Scripts106
Concepts and Categories108
Biological Concepts117
Basic Numerical Abilities124
Summary135
5Reasoning and Problem Solving139
Reasoning: Piaget's View139
Reasoning: Other Perspectives149
Scientific Thinking152
Problem Solving158
Summary174
6Social Cognition177
The Nature of Social Cognition179
Similarities and Differences between Social and Nonsocial Cognition180
Social-Cognitive Development during Infancy184
Children's Knowledge about the Mind187
Understanding Traits and other Psychological Bases of Behavior216
Knowledge about Self220
Understanding Social Relationships224
Summary229
7Memory233
Some Concepts and Distinctions234
Infant Memory236
Remembering Events240
Strategies247
Knowledge256
Metamemory261
Capacity266
Current Issues in Memory Development269
Summary272
8Language275
Preverbal Developments277
Methods of Study281
One-Word Utterances284
Two-Word Utterances288
Later Developments290
Explaining Language Development: Semantics300
Explaining Language Development: Grammar307
Summary317
9Questions and Problems321
Diagnosis322
Patterns331
Cognitive Change339
Summary351
References355
Name Index407
Subject Index417
About the Authors423

Preface

Preface

The intended audience for this book is anyone who has reason to read about human cognitive development. We hope and expect that it will be comprehensible and interesting to readers with a very wide range of backgrounds: people interested in the topic but with little or no background in psychology; undergraduate and graduate students in general, developmental, cognitive, educational, and perhaps social psychology, various fields of education, and possibly other social sciences; perhaps even postdoctoral professionals in these areas. It certainly should be suitable as a text for either an undergraduate or a graduate course.

We include several features to make the book useful to a wide variety of readers. We cite references in the text, especially secondary sources that would provide quick access to much of the primary research literature in an area. Some readers will find these quite useful; others obviously will not. On the other side, we have explained the meaning of most technical terms used, even those that people with only a little background in psychology might know. We try to give a sense of the issues in the field, which we hope conveys the big picture of cognitive development. We have also tried to make the exposition straightforward and readable, and perhaps a little lighter and less formal than textbooks sometimes are. Our goal is to tell the story of children's thinking and how it develops. We personally do not enjoy reading most textbooks and therefore would like this one to be, if not actually enjoyable, at least not wholly unenjoyable.

This edition of the book differs from the third edition in a number of ways. We havethoroughly updated the chapters. Because of the "baby boom" in research on infancy we have expanded that chapter into two-one on perception and one on cognition. This emphasis reflects the dramatic surge of interest in early competencies in recent years. We reorganized two previously chronological chapters on preschool and grade school/adolescence into two new chapters. We labeled one "Representation and Concepts" and the other "Reasoning and Problem Solving." All of the information on theory of mind now is in the (formerly) social cognition chapter. Thus, the new edition is completely topically organized, after the two chapters on infancy that set the stage for later development.

Other changes include additional theoretical frameworks in the introductory chapter. In keeping with recent trends in the field, the book has less emphasis on Piaget and his developmental-stages conception of cognitive growth, and more emphasis on information-processing (including connectionism), sociocultural, theory-change, neo-Piagetian, neuroscience, and constraint approaches. We give special attention to new or rejuvenated areas, such as toddlers' representational abilities, young children's theories of mind, autobiographical memory, suggestibility, variability in the use of strategies, and biological or other kinds of constraints on cognitive development.

More generally we hope to convey both the fascinating nature of children's thinking and the excitement and change in work in this area. Knowledge about cognitive development is very much a work in progress.

We wish to thank various people who offered suggestions for this edition or the previous one: Brian Ackerman, Joseph Beato, Susan Carey, Darlene DeMarie, M Jeffrey Farrar, Derek Montgomery, Marylynn Pfeiffer, James Probert, Carolyn Shantz, and Allison Suffield. We also thank Cynthia Hardin for her assistance with the preparation of this edition, as well as Jennifer Gilliland at Prentice Hall.

John H. Fdavell
Patricia H. Miller
Scott A. Miller

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