Cognitive Radio and Dynamic Spectrum Access / Edition 1

Cognitive Radio and Dynamic Spectrum Access / Edition 1

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Cognitive Radio and Dynamic Spectrum Access / Edition 1

Cognitive Radio for Dynamic Spectrum Access gives acomprehensive overview of the main concepts behind radio spectrumregulation, dynamic spectrum access and cognitive radio. Spectrummeasurements are introduced to illustrate the inefficiencies intoday’s spectrum usage and the book also discusses enablersfor horizontal and vertical spectrum sharing. Among others agame-theory-based approach for spectrum sharing is described andevaluated. Institution and standardisation approaches in academicresearch and industry are highlighted including IEEE SCC41,802.11k/n/s/y and 802.22 which lead towards commercial exploitationof cognitive radio. In conclusion, this book looks at the initialsteps towards the vision of true cognitive radio and the potentialimpact on telecommunication business.

  • Introduces the benefits and challenges of cognitive radio
  • Presents cognitive radio in research and industry and coversimplications for operators from the perspective of a telecomoperator
  • Examines how cognitive radio techniques will considerablychange the wireless communication market.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780470511671
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 03/10/2009
Pages: 242
Product dimensions: 6.70(w) x 9.80(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

Lars Berlemann and Stefan Mangold both contribute to researchprograms, standardization and industry innovations in the field ofdynamic spectrum access, cognitive radio, and IEEE 802 standards.Together they have filed numerous journal and magazine articles,patents, and contributions to research conferences and workshops.They both consult government organizations such as the EuropeanCommission in steering related research programs.

Lars Berlemann and Stefan Mangold have been delivering tutorialson cognitive radio at various research conferences such as IEEEPIMRC and the European Wireless Conference. As alumni from RWTHAachen University, Germany, Lars Berlemann and Stefan Mangoldgraduated at the Chair of Communication Networks, ComNets, withProfessor Bernhard H. Walke as PhD advisor. Their PhD theses (bothawarded summa cum laude) are today considered to beimportant early research contributions to the field and are in thehighest ranks in the number of downloads from theUniversity’s download servers. Together with Professor Walke,Drs Berlemann and Mangold coedited the Wiley book IEEE 802Wireless Systems: Protocols, Multi-Hop Mesh/Relaying, Performanceand Spectrum Coexistence which was published in November2006.

Lars Berlemann is product manager in the product and innovationdepartment of Deutsche Telekom, Germany. Stefan Mangold is managerat Swisscom, Switzerland, leading the access team of the product ITdevelopment group of Swisscom Network & IT. They both work forcompanies that operate mobile, fixed, and broadcast networks, andin addition provide services with excellent customer focus.Consequently, Drs Berlemann and Mangold understand and exploit thesynergies between academic research focusing on excellence, andindustry innovations focusing on commercial exploitation.

Lars Berlemann and Stefan Mangold share and disseminate whatthey learn. In parallel with their employment, they enjoy workingwith students. Lars Berlemann is guest lecturer at the Chair ofCommunication Networks, Technical University of Dortmund, Germany.Stefan Mangold is with ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Department ofComputer Science, where he works as lecturer and visitingscientist. In addition to his scientific engineering background,Lars Berlemann holds a diploma in Business and Economics from RWTHAachen. The comments and statements made in this book are from theauthors and do not necessarily reflect the official position oftheir employers.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures.

List of Tables.

About The Authors.






1.1 Access to radio spectrum.

1.2 Artificial spectrum scarcity from unexploitedfrequencies.

1.3 Cognitive radio and dynamic spectrum access as solution.

1.4 This book 28.


2.1 History and terminology.

2.1.1 The four basic approaches for radio spectrumregulation.

2.1.2 Guiding principles.

2.2 Institutions that regulate radio spectrum.

2.2.1 International Telecommunication Union, ITU.

2.2.2 Europe.

2.2.3 Germany.

2.2.4 United Kingdom.

2.2.5 Japan.

2.2.6 P.R. China.

2.2.7 United States of America.

2.3 Licensed and unlicensed spectrum.

2.3.1 The disadvantages of spectrum licensing.

2.3.2 Unlicensed spectrum as alternative.

2.3.3 Tragedy of commons in unlicensed spectrum.

2.3.4 Spectrum measurements.


3.1 Spectrum sharing and dynamic spectrum access: concepts andterminology.

3.1.1 Spectrum trading and spectrum liberalization.

3.1.2 Underlay and overlay spectrum sharing.

3.1.3 Vertical and horizontal spectrum sharing.

3.1.4 Coexistence, coordination and cooperation.

3.2 Horizontal spectrum sharing.

3.2.1 Coexistence.

3.2.2 Centralized spectrum coordination for horizontalsharing.

3.2.3 Spectrum sharing games.

3.3 Vertical spectrum sharing.

3.3.1 Re-use of TV bands for vertical spectrum sharing.

3.3.2 Spectrum pooling and a common control for verticalspectrum sharing.

3.3.3 Operator-assistance in vertical spectrum sharing.

3.3.4 Spectrum load smoothing for vertical spectrum sharing.

3.4 Taxonomy for spectrum sharing.


4.1 Research programs and projects.

4.1.1 DARPA Next Generation Communications Program, XG.

4.1.2 National Science Foundation’s project GENI.

4.1.3 European project E3.

4.1.4 European project WINNER+.

4.1.5 European project WIP.

4.1.6 European project SOCRATES.

4.1.7 European project ROCKET.

4.1.8 European project ORACLE.

4.2 IEEE coordination, and the Coexistence Advisory Group IEEE802.19.

4.3 IEEE SCC41/P1900.

4.3.1 IEEE P1900.1.

4.3.2 IEEE P1900.2.

4.3.3 IEEE P1900.3.

4.3.4 IEEE P1900.4.

4.3.5 IEEE P1900.5.

4.4 Wi-Fi Wireless Local Area Networks IEEE 802.11.

4.4.1 IEEE 802.11k for radio resource measurements.

4.4.2 IEEE 802.11n for high throughput.

4.4.3 IEEE 802.11s for mesh networks.

4.4.4 IEEE 802.11y for high power Wi-Fi.

4.5 WiMAX Wirless Metropolitan Area Networks IEEE 802.16.

4.5.1 IEEE 802.16.2 Coexistence.

4.5.2 IEEE 802.16h license exempt.

4.5.3 IEEE 802.22 for wireless rural area networks.

4.6 Other standardization activities.

4.6.1 White Spaces Coalition & Wireless InnovationAlliance.

4.6.2 The New America Foundation and open spectrum.

4.6.3 SDR Forum.

4.6.4 Third Generation Partnership Project 3GPP.

4.6.5 European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI.

4.6.6 Academic research conferences and workshops.


5.1 IEEE 802.11 in unlicensed spectrum.

5.1.1 Overview.

5.1.2 Physical layer.

5.1.3 Medium access control.

5.1.4 Learning from 802.11.

5.2 IEEE 802.16 in unlicensed spectrum.

5.2.1 Coexistence scenario.

5.2.2 Protecting the beginning of 802.16 MAC frame.

5.2.3 Protecting the 802.16 UL subframe.

5.2.4 Shifting the contention slots.

5.2.5 Quality-of-service, efficiency, and fairness.

5.3 Policies in spectrum usage.

5.3.1 Policy framework.

5.3.2 Spectrum navigation.

5.3.3 Reasoning based spectrum navigation.

5.4 Policy language.

5.5 Spectrum sharing games.

5.5.1 Related work.

5.5.2 802.11e coexistence scenario.

5.5.3 Game overview.

5.5.4 Single stage game for frame based interaction.

5.5.5 Quality-of-service as utility.

5.5.6 Analytic game model.

5.5.7 Behavior.

5.5.8 Equilibrium analysis.

5.5.9 Multi stage game model.

5.5.10 Discounting of future payoffs.

5.5.11 Strategies.

5.5.12 Nash equilibrium in multi stage games.

5.5.13 QoS evaluation of strategies.

5.5.14 Game approach as policy.

5.5.15 Learning from spectrum sharing games.


6.1 Frequency division duplex for Wi-Fi: FDD WLANs.

6.2 Operator assisted cognitive radio with beaconing.

6.2.1 Existing standard beaconing concepts.

6.2.2 What is a beacon?

6.2.3 Improved signaling mechanism with dual beacons.

6.2.4 Beacon implementation in IEEE 802.11.

6.2.5 Evaluation.

6.2.6 Dual beaconing for the reuse of TV bands as policy.

6.3 Spectrum load smoothing.

6.3.1 Related work.

6.3.2 Enabling cognitive radios.

6.3.3 Spectrum load smoothing in the time domain.

6.3.4 Initial simulations and convergence experiments.

6.3.5 Modeling spectrum load smoothing in spectrum sharingscenarios.

6.3.6 QoS support in IEEE 802.11e coexistencescenarios.

6.3.7 SLS with reservations - approach to the re-use ofTV-bands.

6.3.8 SLS without reservations - opportunistic spectrum usagescenario.

6.3.9 Evaluation of QoS capabilities.

6.3.10 Spectrum load smoothing as policy.

6.3.11 Learning from spectrum load smoothing approach.


7.1 Mitola’s cognition circle and related cognitive radiodefinitions.

7.2 Cognitive radios can gain from delay-tolerant softwareradio.

7.3 DARPA XG provides implementation guidelines, including theaccess protocol.

7.3.1 Traceable decision making.

7.3.2 Machine-understandable radio semantics.

7.4 Spectrum etiquette may stimulate cognitive behavior.

7.4.1 What is spectrum etiquette?

7.4.2 Value orientation.

7.5 Network operators may assist dynamic spectrum access.

7.6 Business opportunities.




B.1 Modeling QoS requirements and demands.

B.2 Resource allocation and collisions.

B.3 Graphical user interface.



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