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ISBN-10:
1119554691
ISBN-13:
9781119554691
Pub. Date:
02/03/2020
Publisher:
Wiley
Colour and The Optical Properties of Materials / Edition 3

Colour and The Optical Properties of Materials / Edition 3

by Richard J. D. Tilley

Hardcover

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Overview

The updated third edition of the only textbook on colour

The revised third edition of Colour and the Optical Properties of Materials focuses on the ways that colour is produced, both in the natural world and in a wide range of applications. The expert author offers an introduction to the science underlying colour and optics and explores many of the most recent applications. The text is divided into three main sections: behaviour of light in homogeneous media, which can largely be explained by classical wave optics; the way in which light interacts with atoms or molecules, which must be explained mainly in terms of photons; and the interaction of light with insulators, semiconductors and metals, in which the band structure notions are of primary concern.

The updated third edition retains the proven concepts outlined in the previous editions and contains information on the significant developments in the field with many figures redrawn and new material added. The text contains new or extended sections on photonic crystals, holograms, flat lenses, super-resolution optical microscopy and modern display technologies. This important book:

  • Offers and introduction to the science that underlies the everyday concept of colour
  • Reviews the cross disciplinary subjects of physics, chemistry, biology and materials science, to link light, colour and perception
  • Includes information on many modern applications, such as the numerous different colour displays now available, optical amplifiers lasers, super-resolution optical microscopy and lighting including LEDs and OLEDs
  • Contains new sections on photonic crystals, holograms, flat lenses, super-resolution optical microscopy and display technologies
  • Presents many worked examples, with problems and exercises at the end of each chapter

Written for students in materials science, physics, chemistry and the biological sciences, the third edition of Colour and The Optical Properties of Materials covers the basic science of the topic and has been thoroughly updated to include recent advances in the field.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781119554691
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 02/03/2020
Edition description: 3rd ed.
Pages: 550
Product dimensions: 7.01(w) x 10.00(h) x (d)

About the Author

Richard J. D. Tilley DSc, PhD, is Emeritus Professor in the School of Engineering at the University of Cardiff, Wales, UK. He has published extensively in the area of solid-state materials science, including 160 papers, nine textbooks, many of which have been translated into other languages, as well as numerous book chapters, encyclopedia entries and book reviews.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1 Light and Colour

1.1 Light and colour

1.1.1 Light rays

1.1.2 Light waves

1.1.3 Photons

1.1.4 Energy levels

1.1.5 Waves and particles

1.1.6 Colour

1.2 Light waves

1.3. Light waves and colour

1.4. Interference

1.4.1 Two waves with the same wavelength

1.4.2 Two waves with different wavelengths

1.4.3 Phase and group velocity

1.4.4 Light pulses

1.4.5 Superluminal and subluminal light

1.5 Light sources

1.6 Incandescence

1.6.1. Incandescence and black body radiation

1.6.2 The colour of incandescent objects

1.7 Luminescence

1.8 Laser light

1.8.1 Emission and absorption of radiation

1.8.2 Energy level populations

1.8.3 Rates of absorption and emission

1.8.4 Cavity modes

1.8.5 Coherence length and bandwidth

1.8.6 Supercontinuum light

1.9 Vision

1.10 Colour perception

1.11 Additive coloration

1.12 Subtractive coloration

1.13 The interaction of light with a material: appearance

1.13.1 Reflection

1.13.2 Diffuse reflectance

1.13.3 Elastic scattering

1.134 Inelastic scattering

1.13.5 Absorption

1.13.6 Attenuation

1.13.7 Structural colour, iridescence and electron excitation colour

Further reading

Problems and exercises

Chapter 2 Colour Due to Refraction and Dispersion

2.1 Refraction and the refractive index of a material

2.2 Total internal reflection

2.2.1 Refraction at an interface

2.2.2 Evanescent waves

2.3 Refractive index and polarizability

2.4 Refractive index and density

2.5 Invisible animals, GRINS and mirages

2.6 Dispersion and colours produced by dispersion

2.7 Rainbows

2.8 Halos

2.9 Fibre optics

2.9.1 Optical communications

2.9.2 Optical fibres

2.9.3 Attenuation in glass fibres

2.9.4 Chemical impurities

2.9.5 Dispersion and optical fibre design

2.10 Metamaterials and negative refractive index

2.10.1 Metamaterials

2.10.2 Hyperlenses

2.10.3 Invisibility cloaks

2.10.4 Metasurfaces and flat lenses

2.11 The electro-optic effect and photorefractive materials

Further reading

Problems and exercises

Chapter 3 The Production of Colour by Reflection

3.1 Reflection from a single surface

3.1.1 Reflection from a transparent plate

3.1.2 Data storage using reflection

3.2 Reflection from a single thin film in air

3.2.1 Reflection perpendicular to the film

3.2.2 Variation with viewing angle

3.2.3 Transmitted beams

3.3 The colour of a single thin film in air

3.4 The reflectivity of a single thin film in air

3.5 The colour of a single thin film on a substrate

3.6 The reflectivity of a single thin film on a substrate

3.7 Low-reflection and high-reflection films

3.7.1 Antireflection coatings

3.7.2 Antireflection layers

3.7.3 Graded index antireflection coatings

3.7.4 High reflectivity surfaces

3.7.5 Interference modulated (IMOD) displays

3.8 Multiple thin films

3.8.1 Dielectric mirrors

3.8.2 Multilayer stacks

3.8.3 Interference filters and distributed Bragg reflectors

3.9 Fibre Bragg Gratings

3.10 “Smart” windows

3.10.1 Low-emissivity windows

3.10.2 Self-cleaning windows

3.11 Thin film colours in nature

3.11.1 Single thin film reflection

3.11.2 Multilayer mirrors

3.11.3 Multilayer colour generation

3.11.4 Multilayer reflectors in blue butterflies

Further reading

Problems and exercises

Chapter 4 Polarization and Crystals

4.1 Polarization of light

4.2 Polarized light and vision

4.3 Polarization by reflection

4.4 Polars

4.5 Crystal symmetry and refractive index

4.6 Double refraction: calcite as an example

4.6.1 Double refraction

4.6.2 Refractive index and crystal structure

4.7 The description of double refraction effects

4.7.1 Uniaxial crystals

4.7.2 Biaxial crystals

4.8 Colour produced by polarization and birefringence

4.9 Dichroism, trichroism and pleochroism

4.10 Nonlinear effects

4.10.1 Nonlinear crystals

4.10.2 Second- and third-harmonic generation

4.10.3 Frequency mixing

4.10.4 Optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators

4.11 Frequency matching and phase matching

4.12 More on second harmonic generation

4.12.1 Polycrystalline solids and powders

4.12.2 Second-harmonic generation in glass

4.12.3 Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation by organic materials

4.12.4 Second-harmonic generation at interfaces

4.12.5 Second-harmonic microscopy

4.13 Optical activity

4.13.1 The rotation of polarized light by molecules

4.13.2 The rotation of polarized light by crystals

4.13.3 Circular birefringence and dichroism

4.14 Liquid crystals

4.14.1 Liquid-crystal mesophases

4.14.2 Liquid-crystal displays

Further reading

Problems and exercises

Chapter 5 Colour Due to Scattering

5.1 Scattering and extinction

5.2 Tyndall blue and Rayleigh scattering

5.3 Blue skies, red sunsets

5.4 Scattering and polarization

5.5 Mie scattering

5.6 Blue eyes, blue feathers and blue moons

5.7 Paints, sunscreens and related matters

5.8 Multiple scattering

5.9 Gold sols and ruby glass

5.10 The Lycurgus Cup and other stained glass

Further Reading

Problems and Exercises

Chapter 6 Colour Due to Diffraction

6.1 Diffraction and scattering

6.2 Diffraction and colour production by a slit

6.3 Diffraction and colour production by a rectangular aperture

6.4 Diffraction and colour production by a circular aperture

6.5 The diffraction limit of optical instruments

6.6 Colour production by linear diffraction gratings

6.7 Two-dimensional gratings

6.8 Estimation of the wavelength of light by diffraction

6.9 Diffraction by crystals and crystal-like structures

6.9.1 Bragg’s Law

6.9.2 Opals

6.10 Photonic crystals

6.10.1 Artificial and inverse opal structures

6.10.2 Diffraction from cubic photonic crystals

6.10.3 The effective refractive index of cubic photonic crystals

6.10.4 Dynamical form of Bragg’s law

6.10.5 Photonic band gaps

6.10.6 Photonic crystals in nature

6.10.7 Photonic crystal fibres

6.11 Disordered diffraction gratings

6.11.1 Random specks and droplets

6.11.2 Halos, coronae and glories

6.11.3 Colour from cholesteric liquid crystals

6.11.4 Natural helicoidal structures

6.11.5 Disordered two- and three-dimensional gratings

6.12 Diffraction by sub-wavelength structures

6.12.1 Diffraction by moth-eye antireflection structures

6.12.2 The cornea of the eye

6.12.3 Some blue feathers

6.13 Holograms

6.13.1 Holograms and interference patterns

6.13.2 Transmission holograms

6.13.3 Reflection holograms

6.13.4 Rainbow holograms

6.13.5 Hologram recording media

6.13.6 Embossed holograms

6.14 Hologram formation

6.14.1 Interference of two coherent light waves

6.14.2 Image formation

Further reading

Problems and exercises

Chapter 7 Colour from Atoms and Ions

7.1 The spectra of atoms and ions

7.2 The spectrum of hydrogen

7.3 Terms and levels

7.4 Atomic spectra and chemical analysis

7.5 Fraunhofer lines and stellar spectra

7.6 Neon signs and plasma displays

7.7 The helium-neon laser

7.8 Sodium and mercury street lights

7.9 Atomic and optical clocks

7.9.1 Clocks

7.9.2 Atomic clocks

7.9.3 The 133Cs atomic clock

7.9.4 Optical Clocks

7.10 Transition-metal cation colours: overview

7.11 Crystal field splitting

7.11.1 d-orbital interactions

7.11.2 Term splitting

7.11.3 Energies

7.11.4 Selection rules

7.12 The crystal-field colours of transition-metal ions

7.12.1 3d1, 3d4, 3d5, 3d6 and 3d9 cations

7.12.2 3d2, 3d3, 3d7 and 3d8 cations

7.12.3 Octahedral and tetrahedral coordination

7.12.4 Thermochromism, piezochromism and crystal-field splitting

7.13 Crystal field colours in minerals and gemstones

7.13.1 The colour of ruby

7.13.2 Emerald, chrome alum and alexandrite

7.13.3 Malachite, azurite and turquoise

7.14 Colour as a structural probe

7.15 Transition-metal-ion lasers

7.15.1 The ruby laser: a three-level laser

7.15.2 The titanium-sapphire laser

7.16 Colours from lanthanoid ions

7.16.1 Lanthanoid ion colours: general

7.16.2 The colour of Ce3+ and Eu2+

7.16.3 f-f colours: Pr3+, Tm3+, Nd3+ and Dy3+

7.17 The neodymium (Nd3+) solid state laser: a four-level laser

7.18 Optical amplifiers

7.18.1 Amplification of optical fibre signals

7.18.2 Fibre lasers

7.19 Transition metal and lanthanoid pigments

Further reading

Problems and exercises

Chapter 8 Colour from Molecules

8.1 The energy levels of molecules

8.1.1 Electronic, vibrational and rotational energy levels

8.1.2 Molecular orbitals

8.1.3 Molecular orbitals in large molecules

8.1.4 Origin of molecular colours

8.2 The colours of some simple inorganic molecules

8.2.1 Halogens and similar molecular species

8.2.2 Auroras

8.2.3 Candles and fireworks

8.3 The colour of water

8.4 Ultramarine pigments and related colours

8.5 Organic chromophores, chromogens and auxochromes

8.6 Conjugated bonds in organic molecules: the carotenoids

8.7 Non-linear conjugated bonds involving N atoms: pterins

8.8 Conjugated bonds circling metal atoms: porphyrins and phthalocyanines

8.8.1 Porphin

8.8.2 Chlorophylls

8.8.3 Haemoglobins and related molecules

8.8.4 Phthalocyanins

8.9 Naturally occurring colorants: flavonoid pigments

8.9.1 Flavone related colours: yellows

8.9.2 Anthocyanin related colours: reds and blues

8.9.3 The colour of red wine

8.10 Autumn leaves

8.11 Some dyes and pigments

8.11.1 Indigo, Tyrian purple and Mauve

8.11.2 Tannins

8.11.3 Melanins

8.12 Charge-transfer colours

8.12.1 Charge-transfer processes

8.12.2 Cation-to-cation (intervalence) charge transfer

8.12.2.1 Prussian blue

8.12.2.2 Blueprints

8.12.2.3 Aquamarine and some other minerals and gemstones

8.12.3 Anion-to-cation charge transfer

8.12.4 Iron containing minerals

8.13 Colour-change sensors

8.13.1 The detection of metal ions

8.13.2 Indicators

8.13.3 Colorimetric sensor films and arrays

8.13.4 Markers

8.14 Dye lasers

8.15 Photochromic organic molecules

8.16 Biological cell stains

Further reading

Problems and exercises

Chapter 9 Luminescence

9.1 Photoluminescence: activators, sensitizers and fluorophores

9.2 Photonic processes in photoluminescence

9.2.1 Fluorescence

9.2.2 Phosphorescence

9.2.3 Thermally activated delayed fluorescence, (TADF)

9.2.4 Anti-Stokes-shift luminescence

9.3 Atomic processes in photoluminescence

9.3.1 Quantum yield and reaction rates

9.3.2 Structural interactions

9.3.3 Quenching

9.3.3.1 Thermal quenching

9.3.3.2 Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)

9.3.3.3 Concentration quenching

9.3.3.4 Photobleaching

9.3.3.5 Dexter electron transfer

9.3.4 Ultralong organic phosphorescence, OLP

9.3.5 Aggregation-induced fluorescence

9.4 Inorganic luminescence

9.4.1 Fluorescent lamps

9.4.2 Halophosphate lamps

9.4.3 Trichromatic lamps

9.4.4 Other fluorescent lamps

9.5 Plasma displays

9.6 Fluorescent organic molecules

9.6.1 Fluorescent molecular tags and proteins

9.6.2 Green fluorescent protein

9.6.3 Other fluorescent proteins

9.6.4 Photoactivatable fluorescent proteins PA-FP

9.6.5 The mechanism of photoswitching

9.6.6 Synthetic fluorescent dyes

9.7 Microscopy

9.7.1 Fluorescence microscopy

9.7.2 Multiphoton excitation microscopy

9.7.3 Super-resolution imaging

9.8 Upconversion

9.8.1 Upconversion via lanthanoid cations

9.8.2 Ground state absorption and excited state absorption

9.8.3 Energy transfer

9.9.4 Other lanthanoid upconversion processes

9.9.5 Organic molecule sensitizers

9.9.6 Triplet-triplet annihilation

9.10 Quantum cutting

9.11 Fluorescent markers and sensors

9.12 Long-lifetime emission

9.12.1 Persistent luminescence

9.12.2 Photostimulable luminescence

9.13.3 Radiophotoluminesence

9.12.4 Optically stimulated luminescence in thermochronometry

9.12.5 Thermoluminescence

9.13 Scintillators

9.14 Chemiluminescent light emission

9.14.1 Chemiluminescence

9.14.2 Bioluminescence

9.14.3 Electrochemiluminescence

9.14.3.1 Annihilation pathway

9.14.3.2 Co-reactant pathway

9.15 Mechanoluminescence and related light emission

9.15.1 Triboluminescence

9.15.2 Sonoluminescence

9.16 Phosphor electroluminescent displays

9.17 Organic molecule electroluminescence and OLEDs

9.17.1 Molecular electroluminescence

9.17.2 Early OLED development

9.17.3 Later developments

9.17.4 White OLEDs and lighting

Further reading

Problems and exercises

Chapter 10 Colour in Insulators, Semiconductors and Metals

10.1 The colours of insulators

10.2 Excitons

10.3 Impurity colours in insulators

10.4 Colour centres

10.4.1 The F centre

10.4.2 Electron-excess and hole-excess centres

10.4.3 Impurity colours in diamond

10.4.4 Surface colour centres

10.4.5 Complex colour centres: laser action

10.4.6 Tenebrescence

10.5 The colours of inorganic semiconductors

10.5.1 Coloured semiconductors

10.5.2 Transparent conducting oxides

10.6 The colours of semiconductor alloys

10.7 Light emitting diodes (LEDs)

10.7.1 Direct and indirect band gaps

10.7.2 Idealised diode structure

10.7.3 High brightness LEDs

10.7.4 Impurity doping in LEDs

10.7.5 LED displays and white light generation

10.7.6 Perovskite LEDs

10.8 Semiconductor diode lasers

10.9 Semiconductor nanostructures

10.9.1 Nanostructures

10.9.2 Quantum wells

10.9.3 Two-dimensional light emitting layered structures

10.9.4 Quantum wires and rods

10.9.5 Quantum dots

10.9.5 QLEDs

10.10 Electrochromic films

10.10.1 Tungsten trioxide electrochromic films

10.10.2 Inorganic electrochromic materials

10.10.3 Electrochromic polymers

10.11 Photovoltaics

10.11.1 Photovoltaics and photoconductivity

10.11.2 Photodiodes and solar cells

10.11.3 Dye sensitized solar cells

10.11.4 Perovskite solar cells

10.12 Digital photography

10.12.1 Charge coupled devices (CCDs)

10.12.2 CCD imaging

10.13 The colours of metals

10.13.1 Metallic materials

10.13.2 Reflectivity of metals

10.13.3 Reflectivity and free electron theory

10.13.4 The colour of copper, silver and gold

10.14 The colours of metal nanoparticles

10.14.1 Surface plasmons and polaritions

10.14.2 Polychromic glass

10.14.3 Photochromic glass

10.14.4 Metal nanoparticle sensors and SERS

10.15 Extraordinary light transmission and plasmonic crystals

Further reading

Problems and exercises

Appendices

Appendix 1 Definitions, units and conversion factors

A 1.1 Constants, energy and conversion factors

A 1.2 Waves

A 1.3 SI units associated with radiation and light

Appendix 2 The colour of a thin film in white light

Appendix 3 Hologram formation

A 3.1 Interference of two coherent light waves

A 3.2 Image formation

A 3.3 Wave overlap and interference

Appendix 4 Atomic electron configurations and energy levels

A 4.1 Electron configurations of the lighter atoms

A 4.2 The 3d transition metals

A 4.3 The lanthanoid elements

A 4.4 The vector model of the atom

A 4.5 Energy levels and terms of many electron atoms

A 4.6 The ground state term of an atom

A 4.7 Energy levels of many electron atoms